Empowerment: Women & Gender Issues: Bibliography

Academic resources

Askin, Kelly. The Quest for Post-Conflict Gender Justice. Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 41 (2003): 509-521.

Bajraktari, Ylli. Economic Empowerment of Women in Iraq: The Way Forward. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, 2006.

Bell, Christine and Catherine ORourke.  Does Feminism Need a Theory of Transitional Justice? An Introductory Essay. International Journal of Transitional Justice 1, no. 1 (2007): 23-44.

Braig, Marianne. Womens Interests in Development Theory and Policy from Women in

Development to Mainstreaming Gender. Development and Cooperation 3 (2000): 13-16.

Callamard, Agnes. Refugee women: a gendered and political analysis of the refugee experience. In Refugees: Perspectives on the Experience of Forced Migration,edited byAlastair Ager ,(London: Cassell, 1999), 196-214.

Campbell, Kirsten. The Gender of Transitional Justice: Law, Sexual Violence and the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. International Journal of Transitional Justice 1, no. 3 (2007): 411-432.

Carey, Henry. "Women and Peace and Security: The Politics of Implementing Gender Sensitivity Norms in Peacekeeping. International Peacekeeping v. 8 no. 2 (2002): 49- 68.

Charlesworth, Hilary. The Gender of International Law. In On Violence, Money, Power and Culture: Reviewing the Internationalist Legacy, edited by John Lawrence Hargrove

Washington: American Society for International Law, 2000.

Chhabra, Satbeer. Gender Perspectives in Peace Initiatives: Opportunities and Challenges. New Dehli, 2006.

DEstrée, T.P., and E.F. Babbitt. "Women and the Art of Peacemaking: Data from Israeli-Palestinian Interactive Problem-Solving Workshops." Political Psychology 19 (1998): 185-209.

DeLaet, Debra L. Gender Justice: A Gendered Assessment of Truth-telling Mechanisms. In Telling the Truths: Truth Telling and Peace Building in Post-Conflict Societies, ed. Tristan Ann Borer (Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 2006). 

Ekiyor, Thelma. "Engendering Peace. How the Peacebuilding Commission can live up to UN Security Council Resolution 1325." Briefing Paper, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung (Hg.), Berlin, 2006.

El Bushra, J. and C. Mukarubuga. "Women, War, and Transition." Gender and Development 3 (1995): 16-22.

Goetz, Sally Baden and Anne Marie. "Who Needs Sex When You Can Have Gender? Conflicting Discourses on Gender at Beijing." Feminist Review 56 (1997): 3-25.

Goldblatt, Beth and Sheila Meintjies. Dealing with the Aftermath - Sexual Violence and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Agenda 36 (1997).

Greenberg, Elaine Zuckerman and Marcia. "The Gender Dimensions of Post-Conflict Reconstruction; an Analytical Framework for Policymakers." Gender and Development 12, no. 3 (2004): 70-82.

Hamber, Brandon. Masculinity and Transitional Justice: An Exploratory Essay. International Journal of Transitional Justice 1, no. 3 (2007): 375-390.

Harsch, Ernest. Women: Africa's ignored combatants Gradual progress towards a greater role in DDR. Africa Renewal, Vol.19 #3, United Nations, (2005): 17.

Irving, Helen. Gender and the Constitution: Equity and Agency in Comparative Constitutional Design. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008, 1.

Jackson, T., N. Marsh, T. Owen and A. Thurin. Who takes the bullet? Understanding the Issues, No. 3/2005, Oslo: Norwegian Church Aid, (2005):

Kirk, Jackie. "Promoting a Gender-Just Peace: The Roles of Women Teachers in Peacebuilding and Reconstruction." Gender and Development 12, no. 3 (2004): 50-59.

Meintjes, Sheila. "The Aftermath: Women in Post-War Reconstruction." Agenda 43 (2000): 4-10.

  Mertus, Julie. "Improving the Status of Women after War." Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 41 (2002-2003): 541-56.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark. Gender Equality in Good Governance. Danida: 2008.

Laplante, Lisa. Women as Political Participants: Psychosocial Post conflict Recovery in Peru. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology v. 13, no. 3 (2007): 313-331.

Leatherman, Janie. Sexual Violence And Armed Conflict: Complex Dynamics Of Re-Victimization. International Journal of Peace Studies v. 12, n.1 (2007): 53.

McKay, Susan. Women, Human Security and Peace-Building: A Feminist Analysis. In Conflict and Human Security: A Search for New Approaches of Peace-building, IPSHU English Research Report Series, no.19, 2004.

McKay, Susan and Dyan Mazurana. Where Are The Girls? Girls in fighting forces in Northern Uganda, Sierra Leone and Mozambique: Their lives during and after war. (2004): 18.

Munro, Jean. Gender and Peacebuilding. Peacebuilding and Reconstruction Programme Initiative, International Development Research Centre: 2000.

Nowrojee, Binaifer. Making the Invisible War Crime Visible: Post Conflict Justice for Sierra Leone's Rape Victims. Harvard Human Rights Journal 18 (Spring 2005).

Okello, Moses Chrispus and Lucy Hovil. Confronting the Reality of Gender-based Violence in Northern Uganda. International Journal of Transitional Justice. 1, no. 3 (2007): 433-443.

Oosterveld, Valerie. The Definition of 'Gender' in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court:  A Step Backwards? Harvard Human Rights Journal 18 (Spring 2005).

Pankhurst, Donna. "The Sex War and Other Wars: Towards a Feminist Approach to Peace Building." Development in Practice 13, no. 2/3 (2003): 154-77.

Pearson, Cecile Jackson and Ruth Pearson. Feminist Visions of Development: Gender Analysis and Policy. London: Routledge, 1998.

Posa, Swanee Hunt and Cristina. "Women Waging Peace." Foreign Policy, no. 124 (2001): 38-47.

Potter, Michael. Women, Civil Society and Peacebuilding. Training for Women Network, 2004.

Pouligny, Beatrice. The politics and anti-politics of Disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programs. Centre dEtudes et de Recherches Internationales, Science Po/CNRS, Secretariat General de la Defence Nationale, France, 2004.

Reilly, Niamh. Seeking Gender Justice in Post-Conflict Transitions: Toward a Transformative Human Rights Approach. International Journal of Law in Context 3, no. 2 (2007): 155.

Reiman, C. All you need is Love? and what about gender? Engendering Burtons Human Needs Theory. University of Bradford, Department of Peace Studies, Centre for Conflict Resolution, Working Paper 10, 2002.

Ross, Fiona. Bearing Witness: Women and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in South Africa. London: Pluto Press, 2002

Rubio-Marin, Ruth and Pablo de Grieff. Women and Reparations. International Journal of Transitional Justice 1, no. 3 (2007): 318-337.

Shinoda, Hideaki. Security Sector Reform and Peacebuilding in Africa with Special Reference to the Case of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Hiroshima Peace Science 28 (2006): 155-172.

Schirch, Lisa Sewak. The Role of Women in Peacebuilding. 2005.

Schirch, Lisa and Manjrika Sewak. Introduction Chapter: Using the Gender Lens. In People Building Peace II, 2006.

Taylor, Alison Lazarus and Claire. "Women and Peacebuilding." Agenda 40 (1999): 91-94.

Ward, Jeanne. If Not Now, When? Addressing Gender-Based Violence in Refugee, Internally Displaced and Post-Conflict Settings. The Reproductive Health for Refugees Consortium, New York: 2002.

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News and reports

Chhetri, Anju. Womens Intervention in the Peace Processes. Nepal Samacharpatra, August 29, 2006.

International Crisis Group. Beyond Victimhood: Women's Peacebuilding in Sudan, Congo and Uganda. Africa Report 112: 2006.

Moyroud, Celine. "Ensuring the Inclusion of Women in Conflict Prevention." Crisis Prevention and Recovery Newsletter, 2007.

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Policy analysis and practitioner documents

Amnesty International. Empowerment of Women. 2008.

Asian Development Bank. Policy on Gender and Development. 2003.

AusAID. Gender Guidelines for Peacebuilding, Australian Agency for International Development. AusAID, 2006.

Burnham, Gilbert and Courtland Robinson. Ethical issues in Conducting Research with Conflict- Affected and Hidden Populations. Seminar in Research Ethics, Center for Refugee and Disaster Response, 2007.

CIDA. Gender Equality and Peacebuilding: An Operational Framework. Canadian International Development Agency, 1998. 

CIDA. Gender Equality Peacebuilding: Operational Framework. CIDA Peacebuilding Unit and Gender Equality Unit, 2001.

CARE. Womens Empowerment. 2005.

Collins, Robynn and Saskia Ivens. NGOs and Peacebuilding; Canadian Experience and Guidelines. For the Gender and Peacebuiding Working Group and the Canadian Peacebuilding Coordinating Committee, GPWG and CPCC, 2005.

Conaway, Camille Pampell. The Role of Women in Reconstruction and Stabilization. United States Institute of Peace, Stabilization and Reconstruction Series 3 (2006).

The Department for Disarmament Affairs with the Office of the Special Advisor on Gender Issues and the Advancement of Women at the United Nations. Gender Perspectives on Disarmament, Mobilization and Reintegration. 2004.               

De Watteville, Nathalie. Addressing Gender Issues in Demobilization and Reintegration Programs. Africa Region Working Paper Series, The World Bank (2000).

DFID. Gender Equality: Are We on Track to Meet the Mdg Target 3? DIFD, 2007.

DPKO. Gender Equality in UN Peacekeeping Missions. 2006.

Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Developing the Security Sector: By Whom for Whom. Ed. Margret Verwijk. The Hague: 2007.

Duvvury, Richard Strickland and Nata. Gender Equity and Peacebuilding: From Rhetoric to Reality: Finding the Way. Washington DC: International Center for Research on Women, 2003.

ECOSOC. Mainstreaming the gender perspective into all policies and programmes in the United Nations system. In Report on the Economic and Social Council for 1997, A/52/3, 1997.

Goovaerts, Piet et al. Demand Driven Approaches to Livelihood Support in Post-war Contexts: A Joint ILO-World Bank Study. Paper no. 29, The World Bank and International Labour Office, 2005.

The Gender and Peacebuilding Working Group (GPWG) of the Canadian Peacebuilding Coordinating Committee (CPCC). A Canadian Civil Society response to the Official Government of Canada Report on the Implementation of 1325 United Nations Security Council  Resolution 1325 (2000) on Women, Peace and Security. 2004.

The Hague. The Hague Declaration on Women and Peacebuilding. The Hague: 2003.

Hansen, Cindy and Kate McInturff. Gender Training in Fragile States: Recommendations. For the Gender and Peacebuilding Working Group, Oxfam: 2008.

Hunt Alternatives Fund. The Initiative for Inclusive Security: Colombia Recommendations: Constructing a Self-Critical Society Through Inclusive Dialogue. 2008.

Hunts Alternatives Fund. Inclusive Security, Sustainable Peace: A toolkit for advocacy and action. 2004.

IASC. Guidelines for Gender Based Violence Interventions in Humanitarian Settings. IASC, 2005.

ICRC. Workshop on the Development of Human Rights Training for Humanitarian Actors. International Council of Voluntary Agencies, 2001.

ICRC. Women in War: A particularly Vulnerable Group? 2007.

ICRC. Study on the Impact of Armed Conflict on Women. 2001.                                                   

IDEA. Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers. Stockholm: IDEA, 2005.

IDEA and Stockholm University. Global Database of Quotas for Women. 2006. http://www.quotaproject.org/

IRC. Traditional Justice and Gender Based Violence: Research Report. Submitted by Ainsling Swaine, 2003.

Inter-Agency Network on Women and Gender Equality. National Implementation of Security Council resolution 1325 (2000). Taskforce on Women, Peace and Security, 2008.

International Alert and Women Waging Peace. Inclusive Security, Sustainable Peace: A Toolkit for Advocacy and Action. London: London Hunt Alternatives Fund and International Alert, 2004.

International Center for Transitional Justice. Liberia is not just a man thing: Transitional Justice Lessons for Women Peace and Security. Ed. Karen Campbell-Nelson. Initiative for Peacebuilding, 2008.

JICA. JICA Thematic Guidelines on Peacebuilding Assistance. 2003.

Joint Statement by African and International Civil Society Organizations Ahead of the UN Millennium +5 review Summit. "Mdgs Not Possible, without a Bold Overhaul of Global Governance." In UN Millenium +5 Review Summit, Nairobi, 2005.

Klot, Jennifer F. Women and Peacebuilding. Independent Expert Paper. Commissioned by UNIFEM and PBSO, 2007.

Larserud, Stina and Rita Taphorn. Designing for Equality: Best-fit, medium-fit and non-favourable combinations of electoral systems and gender quotas. International IDEA, 2007.

Mallorca-Bernabe, Grace. Violence Against Women: The Case of the Philippines. In NGO Security: Does Gender Matter. Save the Children, Washington: The George Washington University, 2006.

Marshall, Ramsey Donna. Women in War and Peace: Grassroots Peacebuilding.

United States Institute of Peace, 2000.

Myrtinen, Henri and Kate McInturff. Gender Small Arms and Development: The Case of South Sudan. The Canadian Peacebuilding Network, April 2008.

NGO Working Group on Women Peace and Security. From Local to Global, Making Peace Work for Women. Ed. Krista Lynes and Gina Torry. New York: NGO Working Group, 2005.

NGO Working Group on Women Peace and Security and International Alert. Enhancing Security and the Rule of Law: How can Gender be better integrated into the priorities of the UN Peacebuilding Commission. NGO Working Group and International Alert, 2007.

Neimanis, Astrida. Gender Mainstreaming in Practice: A Handbook. Regional Office for Europe and the CIS, UNDP, 2002.

Nesiah, Vasuki. Gender and Truth Commission Mandates. New York: International Center for Transitional Justice, 2006.

Nesiah, Vasuki. Truth Commissions and Gender: Principles, Policies and Procedures. International Center for Transitional Justice, 2006.

Netherlands Institute of International Relations, Conflict Research Unit. Gender and DDR: Building Blocks for Dutch Policy. The Hague: Clingendael Institute, 2005.

New Zealand International Aid and Development Agency. Taking Action in Achieving Gender Equality and Womens Empowerment. 2007.

Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and UNIFEM. Towards Achieving the Mdg's in Sudan: Centrality of Women's Leadership and Gender Equality. PDC Tangen, 2005.

OECD. Women, Endogenous Government and Conflict Prevention in West Africa. Workshop organized by Sahel and West Africa Club.  France: OECD, 2006.

OSAGI. Concept and Definitions. 2008.

OSAGI. Enhancing Womens Participation in Electoral Processes in Post-Conflict Countries. Expert Group Meeting on Enhancing Womens Participation in Electoral Processes in Post-Conflict Countries, EGM/ELEC/2004/BP.2., background Paper, January 19"22, Glen Cove: 2004.

OSAGI. Gender Mainstreaming: Strategy for Promoting Gender Equality: Fact Sheet 1. 2001.

OSAGI. Important Concepts Underlying Gender Mainstreaming: Fact Sheet 2. 2001.

OSCE. Gender Aspects in Post-Conflict Situations A Guide for OSCE Staff. 2001.

Oxaal, Zoe and Sally Baden. Gender and Empowerment: definitions, approaches and implications for policy. Briefing paper prepared for SIDA, Development and gender,

Brighton, Institute of Developmental Studies, 1997.

Peace X Peace. The Daily Power of Women in Peacebuilding. Ed. Patricia Smith Melton.

Permanent Mission of the UK to the UN. Peacebuilding: Is it a Womans Job? International Action Network on Small Arms, 2008.

Potter, Michael. Women, Civil Society and Peacebuilding. Training for Women Network, 2004.

Republic of Zambia. "Women's Participation in Peace Building and Mechanism for Their Involvement in Conflict Resolution, Peace Promotion and Humanitarian Assistance." In First Ladies Forum at the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region. Nairobi, 2004.

Save the Children. NGO Security: Does Gender Matter. Washington: The George Washington University, 2006.

Schirch, Lisa. Women in Peacebuilding Resource & Training Manual. Lisa Schirch, East Mennonite University, 2004.

Sirleaf, Elisabeth Rehn and Ellen Johnson. Women War Peace: The Independent Experts' Assessment on the Impact of Armed Conflict on Women and Women's Role in Peace-Building. New York: UNIFEM, 2002.

Sorensen, Birgitte. Women and Post-Conflict Reconstruction: Issues and Sources. United Nations Research Institute for Social Development Programme for Strategic and International Security Studies, WSP Occasional Paper No. 3, 1998.

Status of Women Canada. Gender-based analysis: A guide for policy-making. 2006.

UN Commission on the State of Women. Womens Equal Participation in Peace Processes, Mens Role in Achieving Gender. 2004.

UNAC. Gender, Peacekeeping and Peacebuilding: Background on Gender and UN Peace Operations. 2007.

United Nations Coordinating Action on Small Arms. Guidelines for gender mainstreaming for the effective implementation of the UN programme of action to prevent, combat and eradicate the illicit trade in small arms and light weapons in all its aspects. A/CONF.192/2006/RC/CRP.3, 2006.

United Nations Department of Peace Keeping Operations/Department of Filed Support-Department of Political Affairs.  Joint Guidelines on Enhancing the Role of Women in Post-Conflict Electoral Processes. United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations and Department of Field Support in cooperation with the Electoral Assistance Division of the Department of Political Affairs, October 2007.

UNDP Evaluation Office. "From Recovery to Transition: Women, the Untapped Resource." Essentials 11 (2003).

UNDP. Can Conflict Analysis Processes Support Gendered Visions of Peace Building.

New York: UNDP, 2006.

UNDP. Donor Proposal for the Eight Point Agenda for Womens Empowerment and Gender Equality in Crisis Prevention and Recovery. Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery, New York: UNDP, 2007.

UNDP. Human Development Report. New York: UNDP, 1995.

UNDP. Donor Proposal for the Eight Point Agenda for Women's Empowerment and Gender Equality Crisis Prevention and Recovery. New York: Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery, 2007.

UNDP. Empowered and Equal: Gender Equality Strategy. New York: UNDP, 2007. 

UNDP. The Eight Point Agenda: Practical, Positive Outcomes for Girls and Women in Crisis.

UNDPA Division on the Advancement of Women. Peace agreements as a means for promoting gender equality and ensuring participation of women - A framework of model provisions. Report of the Expert Group Meeting, 2003. 

UNDPKO/DFS-DPA. Joint Guidelines on Enhancing the Role of Women in Post-Conflict Electoral Processes. United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations and Department of Field Support in cooperation with the Electoral Assistance Division of the Department of Political Affairs. New York: October 2007.

UNESCO. Women Organize for Peace and Non-Violence in Africa: General Guidelines under the Zanzibar Declaration from Women of Africa. UNESCO France: 2000.

UNHCR.Handbook for Self-reliance. The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 2005.

UNHCR. Handbook for the Protection of Women and Girls. 2008.

UNICEF. Gender Equality: the big picture. New York, 2008.

UNIFEM. Cedaw and Security Council Resolution 1325: A Quick Guide. New York: UNIFEM, 2006.

UNIFEM. Getting it Right, Doing it Right: Gender and Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration. New York: UNIFEM, 2004.

UNHCR. Sexual and Gender-Based Violence against Refugees, Returnees and Internally Displaced Persons. New York: UNHCR, 2003.

UNIFEM. Women and Peacebuilding in Africa. New York: UNIFEM, 2005.

UNIFEM. Securing the Peace: Guiding the International Community Towards Women's Effective Participation Throughout Peace Processes. Edited by Camille Pampell Conaway Klara Banaszak, Anne Marie Goetz, Aina Iiyambo and Maha Muna. New York: UNIFEM, 2005.

UNIFEM. Women Building Peace and Preventing Sexual Violence in Conflict-Affected Contexts: A Review of Community-Based Approaches. New York: UNIFEM, 2007.

UNIFEM. Gender Sensitive Police Reform in Post Conflict Societies. New York: UNDP, 2007.

UNIFEM. Womens Essential Role in Peacebuilding. 2005 World Summit, 2005.

United Nations Economic and Social Council. Gender Equality Tool. 1997.

UN-INSTRAW, DCAF, OSCE/ODIHR, Gender and Security Sector Reform Toolkit. Geneva, 2008.

UN Peace and Security through Disarmament. Gender Perspectives on DDR: Briefing Note 4.

United States Agency for International Development. Women and Conflict: An Introductory Guide for Programming.

Valasek, Kristin.  Gender and SSR Toolkit : Security Sector Reform and Gender.  Geneva : United Nations, 2008.

Valji, Nahla. Gender Justice and Reconciliation. Berlin: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (FES), November 2007.


WHO. International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects. Geneva, 2002.

Women War and Peace. Women, War, Peace and Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration. 2008.

The World Bank. Gender, Justice and Truth Commissions. The World Bank, 2006.

The World Bank, Improving Womens Lives: World Bank Actions Since Beijing. The World Bank Gender and Development Group, 2005.

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UN official documents

Platform for Action and the Beijing Declaration. Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, China, 1995.

UN. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. 1979.

UN. Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women. 1994.

UN General Assembly.Crime prevention measures and criminal justice to eliminate violence against women. Resolution 52/86, 1997.

UN. The Millennium Development Goals Report. New York: United Nations 2008.

UN. Women Peace and Security: Study Submitted by the Secretary General Pursuant to Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000). New York: United Nations, 2002.

United Nations Security Council. The rule of law and transitional justice in conflict and post-conflict societies. S/2004/616, 2004.

United Nations Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on Women and Peace and Security.S/2007/567, 2007.

United Nations Security Council. Resolution 1820. S/RES/1820, 2008.

United Nations Security Council. Resolution 1325 (2000) Women Peace and Security. 2000.

United Nations Security Council. Security Council Extends UN Mission in Sierra Leone until 30 September; Urges Restoration of Civil Authority, Public Services. 2003.

United Nations Secretary General. Strengthening the role of the United Nations in enhancing the effectiveness of the principle of periodic and genuine elections and the promotion of democratization. A/62/293, August 23, 2007.

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Business Council for Peace with UNIFEM

Canadian Peacebuilding Coordinating Committee (CPCC)

Canadian Peacebuilding Network

Center for Human Rights and Conflict Resolution (The Fletcher School)

Center for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation

Coalition for Peace in Africa (COPA)

Conciliation Resources

Council of Europe

Division for the Advancement of Women

European Centre for Conflict Prevention

Geneva Center for Security Policy (GCSP)

Global Directory of Gender Peace and Security Research Institutes

Global Grassroots


I Know Politics

INCORE Guide to Women and Conflict

Initiative for Peacebuilding

Institute for Security Studies (ISS)

International Center for Ethnic Studies (ICES)

The International Conference on Women, Peacebuilding and Constitution Making

International Conference on Women, Peace and Security in Somalia

International Development Research Center (IDRC)-Peace, Conflict, and Development (PCD)

International Peace Institute

International Womens Resources: Peace Building

New York University - Centre on International Cooperation (CIC)

NGO Working Group on Women Peace and Security

Office of the Special Adviser on Gender Issues

Pathways of Womens Empowerment

Partnership for Effective Peacekeeping (PEP)

Peacebuilding & Development Institute (PDI)

Peace Women Across the Globe

Peace X Peace

Raising Womens Voices

Training for Peace (TfP) Program

Transitional Justice Centre

UNDP Gender


UNIFEM Women War Peace

University of York - Post-war Reconstruction and Development Unit (PRDU)

Women Building Peace

Womens Commission

West Africa Network for Peacebuilding

Women Ink

Women in Security, Conflict Management and Peace

Women Making Peace

Women Peacemaker Program

Womens International League for Peace and Freedom

Womens World Summit

Women Waging Peace

Women War Peace

Women Watch

Womens World Summit

World Bank

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