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Barkan, Elazar and Alexander Karn. Group Apology as an Ethical Imperative. In Taking Wrongs Seriously: Apologies and Reconciliation, edited by Elazar Barkan and Alexander Karn, 3-30. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2006.
Berman, Kim and Daniel Selibe. Artist Proof Studio: A Journey of Reconciliation. Working paper, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts, 2003.
Berns, Jessica with Mari Fitzduff. What is Coexistence and Why a Complementary Approach? Waltham, MA: Brandeis University Coexistence Initiative, July 2007.
Boersch-Supan, Johanna. What the Communities Say: The Crossroads between Integration and Reconciliation. What can be Learned from the Sierra Leonean Experience? PhD dissertation, Oxford University, Oxford, 2008.
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Bole, William, Drew Christiansen, and Robert T. Hennemeyer. Forgiveness in International Politics: An Alternative Road to Peace. Washington, DC: United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, 2004.
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Borer, Tristan A., Darby, John, and McEvoy-Levy, Sibhoan. Peacebuilding after Peace Accords: The Challenges of Violence, Truth and Youth. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2006.
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Bouris, Erica. Complex Political Victims. Bloomfield: Kumarian Press, 2007.
Chapman, Audrey R. and Bernard Spong. Religion and Reconciliation in South Africa: Voices of Religious Leaders. Philadelphia: Templeton Foundation Press, 2004.
Chesterman, Simon, Michael Ignatieff, and Ramesh Thakur. Making States Work: From State Failure to State-Building. New York: International Peace Academy, July 2004.
Christodoulidis, Emilios and Scott Veitch, eds. Lethes Law: Justice, Law and Ethics in Reconciliation. Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2001.
Cohen, Cynthia. Creative Approaches to Reconciliation. In The Psychology of Resolving Global Conflicts: From War to Peace, edited by M. Fitzduff and C.E. Stout, Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2005.
Cole, Elizabeth A. History, Education, and Sociopolitical Reconciliation after Mass Crimes. Research paper, Re-Imagining Peace after Massacres, CERI Sciences-Po.
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Cose, Ellis. Bone to Pick: Of Forgiveness, Reconciliation, Reparation, and Revenge. New York: Atria Books, 2004.
Crocker, David. Punishment, Reconciliation and Democratic Deliberation. Buffalo Criminal Law Review 6(4) (2002): 509-549.
Crocker, David. Reckoning with Past Wrongs: A Normative Framework. Ethics and International Affairs 13 (1999).
Daly, Erin and Jeremy Sarkin. Reconciliation in Divided Societies: Finding Common Ground. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007.
de Grieff, Pablo The Role of Apologies in National Reconciliation Processes: On Making Trustworthy Institutions Trusted. In The Age of Apology, edited by Mark Gibney and Rhoda E. Howard-Hassmann. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008.
De Gruchy, John W. Reconciliation: Restoring Justice. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2002.
Delgado, Mariana. The Role of Universities in Peacebuilding Processes in Contexts of Armed Conflict: The Experience of the Universidad de Bogota Jorge Tadeo Lozano in Colombia. Proceedings of the 4th International Barcelona Conference on Higher Education, Vol. 5. The role of higher education in peace building and reconciliation processes. Barcelona: GUNI.
Dwyer, Susan. Reconciliation for Realists. Ethics and International Affairs 13 (1999).
Feldman, Lily Gardner. The Principle and Practice of Reconciliation in German Foreign Policy: Relations with France, Israel, Poland and the Czech Republic. International Affairs 75, no. 2 (1999).
Fisher, Ronald J. Social-Psychological Processes in Interactive Conflict Analysis and Reconciliation. In Reconciliation, Justice, and Coexistence: Theory and Practice, edited by Mohammed Abu-Nimer, 25-45. New York: Lexington Books, 2001.
Gibson, James L. The Contributions of Truth to Reconciliation: Lessons from South Africa. The Journal of Conflict Resolution 50, no. 3 (June 1, 2006): 409-432.
Govier, Trudy. Trust and the Problem of National Reconciliation. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 32 (2002).
Hamber, Brandon and Grainne Kelly, A Working Definition of Reconciliation. Democratic Dialogue (2004).
Hamber, Brandon and Hugo van der Merwe. What is this Thing Called Reconciliation? Reconciliation in Review 1, no. 1, (1998).
Hamber, Brandon. Does the Truth Heal? A Psychological Perspective on Political Strategies for Dealing with the Legacy of Political Violence. In Burying the Past: Making Peace and Doing Justice after Civil Conflict, edited by Nigel Biggar, 155-74. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2003.
Hancock, Landon. Reconciliation and Justice as Prerequisites for Peace-Building. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology 8, no. 3 (2002): 291-293.
Hart, Barry, ed. Peacebuilding in Traumatized Societies. Maryland: University Press of America, 2008.
Hartwell, Marcia. The Role of Forgiveness in Reconstructing Society after Conflict. Journal of Humanitarian Assistance (May 1999).
Hatay, Ann-Sofi Jakobsson. Peacebuilding and Reconciliation in Bosnia, Herzegovina, Kosovo and Macedonia 1995-2004. Uppsala, Sweden: Uppsala University Department of Peace and Conflict Research, 2005.
Hein, Laura and Mark Selden. The Lessons of War, Global Power, and Social Change. In Censoring History, edited by Laura Hein and Mark Selden. Armonk, NY: Sharpe, 2000.
Herman, Judith. Trauma and Recovery. New York: Basic Books, 1997.
Hodgson, Jennifer, William Boyce, and Michael Koros. Community Based Rehabilitation: A Strategy for Peacebuilding. Working paper, Queens University, Kingston, Canada.
Humphrey, Michael. The Politics of Atrocity and Reconciliation: From Terror to Trauma. London: Routledge, 2002.
Hutt, Jenny and Bev Hosking. Playback Theatre: A Creative Resource for Reconciliation. Virtual Resource, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts, 2004.
Huyse, Luc. Theory and Practice. In Reconciliation: Rhetoric or Relevant? edited by Grainne Kelly and Brandon Hamber. Belfast: Democratic Dialogue, 2005.
Irani, George E. and Nathan C. Funk. Rituals of Reconciliation: Arab-Islamic Perspectives. Occasional Paper #19. Notre Dame, Indiana: Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies, 2000.
Jean, Isabella and Jessica Berns. Complementary Approaches to Coexistence Work: Focus on Coexistence and Democracy-Building. Coexistence International (July 2007).
King, Régine Uwibereyeho. Trauma, Healing and Reconciliation in Rwanda. International Journal of Disability, Community & Rehabilitation 1, no. 3 (2002).
Kois, Lisa. The Art of Forgetting. Documentary, Sri Lanka, 2006.
Kriesberg, Louis. Coexistence and the Reconciliation of Communal Conflicts. In The Handbook of Interethnic Coexistence, edited by Eugene Weiner, 182-198. New York: Continuum Publishing, 1998.
Kriesberg, Louis. Comparing Reconciliation Actions within and Between Countries. In From Conflict Resolution to Reconciliation, edited by Yaakov Bar-Siman-Tov. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Kriesberg, Louis. External contributions to post-mass-crime rehabilitation. In After Mass Crimes Rebuilding States and Communities,edited by Beatrice Pouligny, Simon Chesterman, and Albrecht Schnabel, 243-270. Tokyo: United Nations University Press, 2007.
Kriesberg, Louis. Paths to Varieties of Intercommunal Reconciliation. In Conflict Resolution: Dynamics, Process and Structure, edited by Ho-won Jeong. Ashgate: Aldershot, 1999.
Kriesberg, Louis. Reconciliation: Aspects, Growth, and Sequences International Journal of Peace Studies 12, no 1 (Spring/Summer 2007): 1-21.
Lambourne, Wendy. Post-Conflict Peacebuilding: Meeting Human Needs for Justice and Reconciliation. Peace, Conflict and Development 4 (April 2004).
Last, David. From Peacekeeping to Peacebuilding. The Online Journal of Peace and Conflict Resolution 5, no. 1 (2003).
Lederach, John Paul. Building Peace: Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided Societies. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1998.
Lederach, John Paul. Civil Society and Reconciliation In Turbulent Peace: The Challenges of Managing International Conflict, edited by Chester A. Crocker, Fen Osler Hampson, and Pamela Aall, 841-854. Washington D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press, 2001.
Lederach, John Paul. Conflict Transformation in Protracted Internal Conflicts: The Case for a Comprehensive Framework. In Conflict Transformation, edited by Kumar Rupesinghe. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 1995.
Lederach, John Paul. Journey towards Reconciliation. Waterloo, ON: Herald Press, 1999.
Lederach, John Paul. The Little Book of Conflict Transformation, Intercourse, PA: Good Books, 2005.
Lederach, John Paul. The Moral Imagination: The Art and Soul of Building Peace. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Lemarchand, Rene and Maurice Niwese. Mass Murder, the Politics of Memory and Post-Genocide Reconstruction: The Cases of Rwanda and Burundi. In After Mass Crime: Rebuilding States and Communities, edited by Beatrice Pouligny, Simon Chesterman, and Albrecht Schnabel. Tokyo: United Nations University Press, 2007.
Lerche, Charles O. III. Truth Commissions and National Reconciliation: Some Reflections on Theory and Practice. Peace and Conflict Studies 7(1) (May 2000).
Leys, Colin and Mahmood Mamdani. Crisis and Reconstruction - African Perspectives: Two Lectures. Sweden: Nordiska Africainstitutet, 1997.
Malek, Cate. Reconciliation. Conflict Research Consortium, University of Colorado.
Mani, Rami. Rebuilding an Inclusive Political Community after War. Security Dialogue 36, no. 4 (2005).
Maynard, Kimberly A. Healing Communities in Conflict: International Assistance in Complex Emergencies. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999.
McGregor, Lorna. Reconciliation: I Know It When I See It. Contemporary Justice Review 9, no. 2 (2006): 155-174.
Newman, Edward. Recovering from Civil Conflict: Reconciliation, Peace, and Development. London: Frank Cass Publishers, 2002.
Opotow, Susan. Reconciliation in Times of Impunity: Challenges for Social Justice. Social Justice Research 14, no. 2 (June 2001): 149-170.
Osgood, Charles. Perspective in Foreign Policy. Palo Alto: Pacific Books, 1966.
Philpott, Daniel. Religion, Reconciliation, and Transitional Justice: The State of the Field. New York: Social Science Research Center, October 2007.
Philpott, Daniel. What Religion Brings to the Politics of Transitional Justice. Journal of International Affairs 61, no. 1 (2007): 93-110
Posthumus, Bram, Salomão Tirço Mungoi, Hugo van der Merwe, and Richard Smith. Struggles in Peacetime: Working with ex-combatants in Mozambique - their work, their frustrations and successes. Amsterdam: Netherlands Institute for Southern Africa, 2006.
Pugh, Michael, ed. Regeneration of War-Torn Societies. New York: St. Martins Press, 2000.
Redekop, Vern Neufeld. A Post-Genocidal Justice of Blessing as an Alternative to a Justice of Violence: The Case of Rwanda. In Peacebuilding in Traumatized Societies, edited by Barry Hart. Maryland: University Press of America, 2008.
Redekop, Vern Neufeld. Teachings of Blessing as an Element of Reconciliation: Intra and Inter-Religious Hermeneutical Challenges and Opportunities. In The Next Step in Studying Religion: A Graduates Guide, ed. Matthieu Courville. London: The Continuum International Publishing Group, 2002.
Ricigliano, Robert. Networks of Effective Action: Implementing an Integrated Approach to Peacebuilding. Security Dialogue 34, no. 4 (December 2003).
Rigby, Andrew. Dealing with the Past: Forgiveness and the Reconstruction of Memory in Divided Societies. In Ethical Theory in the Study of International Politics, edited by Mark Evans 103-122. New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2004.
Rodella, Aude-Sophie. Justice, Peace, and Reconciliation in Post-Conflict Societies: The Case of Sierra Leone. Masters thesis, the Fletcher School of Tufts University, 2003.
Rotberg, Robert I. and Dennis Thompson, eds. Truth v. Justice: The Morality of Truth Commissions. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000.
Schapp, Andrew. Political Reconciliation. New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 2005.
Simpson, Graeme. Reconstruction and Reconciliation: Emerging from Transition, Development in Practice 7, no. 4 (1997).
Sisson, Jonathan, ed. Dealing with the Past in Post-Conflict Societies: Ten Years after the Peace Accords in Guatemala and Bosnia-Herzegovina. Conference Paper for the Swisspeace Annual Conference, 2006.
Slachmuijlder, Lena. The Rhythm of Reconciliation: A reflection on drumming as a contribution to reconciliation processes in Burundi and South Africa. Working paper, Brandeis University, 2003-04.
Staub, Ervin, Laurie Ann Pearlman, Alexandra Gubin, and Athanase Hagengimana. Healing, Reconciliation, Forgiving, and the Prevention of Violence after Genocide or Mass Killing: An Intervention and its Experimental Evaluation in Rwanda. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 24, No. 3 (2005): 297-334.
Stover, Eric and Harvey M. Weinstein, eds. My Neighbor, My Enemy: Justice and Community in the Aftermath of Mass Atrocity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Strong-Cvetich, Nikolas, and Dr. Jason Scorse. Eco-Tourism in Post-Conflict: A New Tool for Reconciliation? Working paper,Monterey Institute of International Studies, 2007.
Teaching for Reconciliation: Can Tolerance Towards Former Enemies Be Taught? Report on an International Faculty Development Seminar, Lublin, Poland, June 3-5, 2001.
Theidon, Kimberly. Intimate Enemies: Reconciling the Present in Post-War Communities in Ayacucho, Peru. In After Mass Crime: Rebuilding States and Communities, edited by Beatrice Pouligny, Simon Chesterman, and Albrecht Schnabel. Tokyo: United Nations University Press, 2007.
Theidon, Kimberly. The Micropolitics of Reconciliation in Postwar Peru. Journal of Conflict Resolution 50, no. 3, (2006): 433-457.
Unsworth, Sue and Peter Uvin. A New Look at Civil Society Support in Rwanda? Draft, Oct. 7, 2002.
Uvin, Peter. Life after Violence: A Peoples History of Burundi. London: Zed Books, 2008.
Volf, Miroslav. Free of Charge: Giving and Forgiving in a Culture Stripped of Grace. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2005.
Wink, Walter. When the Powers Fall: Reconciliation in the Healing of Nations. Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg Fortress Press, 1998.
Winslow, Tom. Reconciliation: The Road to Healing? Collective Good, Individual Harm? Track Two 6 no. 3 & 4 (1997).
Wuye, James, and Muhammad Ashafa. The Pastor and the Imam: Responding to Conflict. Kaduna, Nigeria: Ibrash Press, 1999.
[Back to Top] The Long Journey Home: an IRIN Web Special on the challenge of refugee return and reintegration. February 12, 2005.
Reuters. Sports Leagues in Kenya Facilitate Tribal Reconciliation. February 12, 2008.
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UN News Centre. UN promotes peacebuilding in Kenya after election crisis. April 28, 2008.Weinstein, Michael. Somalia's Compromised National Reconciliation Conference. Power and Interest News Report, July 9, 2007.
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Abrahamsen, Therese and Hugo van der Merwe. Reconciliation through Amnesty? Amnesty Applicants' Views of the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Research report written for the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, 2005.
UN Security Council, 5335th meeting. Resolution 1645 [Establishing the Peacebuilding Commission]. S/RES/1645, December 20, 2005.
UN Security Council, 4903rd meeting. Reaffirmation of importance of UN role in post-conflict national reconciliation. S/PRST/2004/2, January 26, 2004.
[Back to Top] Aftermath
Agenda for Reconciliation
Alliance for Conflict Transformation
Alliance for Peacebuilding
Cambodian Reconciliation Committee
The Carter Center
The Centre for Peace-Building & Reconciliation
Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation
Fellowship of Reconciliation
The Goethe Institute
Institute for Multi-Track Diplomacy
Institute for Justice and Reconciliation
International Peacebuilding Alliance
The Justice and Reconciliation Project
Life & Peace Institute
The Peacebuilding Portal
Peace Trees Vietnam
Peace and Reconciliation
People Building Peace
The Plowshares Institute
Reconciliation Resource Network (RRN)
School for Peace
Search for Common Ground
SER Foundation NL
Sport for Development & Peace International Working Group
Théâtre & réconciliation
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DocumentsAyindo, Baby. Arts Approaches to Peace: Playing our Way to Transcendance? In Peacebuilding in Traumatized Societies, edited by Barry Hart, 185-203. Maryland: University Press of America, 2008.
Bacon, Barbara Schaffer, Cheryl Yuen, and Pam Korza. Animating Democracy: The Artistic Imagination as a Force in Civic Dialogue. Washington, DC: Americans for the Arts, 1999.
Chayes, Antonia and Martha Minow, eds. Imagine Coexistence: Restoring Humanity after Violent Ethnic Conflict. Boston: Jossey-Bass, 2003.
Cleveland, W. Making Exact Change: How U.S. Arts-Based Programs Have Made a Significant and Sustained Impact on their Communities. Saxapahaw, NC: Art in the Public Interest,2005.
Cohen, Cynthia. Creative Approaches to Reconciliation. In The Psychology of Resolving Global Conflicts: From War to Peace, edited by Mari Fitzduff and Christopher E. Stout. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2005.
Cohen, Cynthia. Peace and Aesthetic Experience: Coexistence, Reconciliation, and the Arts. PSA News: Newsletter of the Peace Studies Association 6, no. 2 (2000).
Cohen, Cynthia. A Poetics of Reconciliation: The Aesthetic Mediation of Conflict. Dissertation, University of New Hampshire, 1997.
Cohen-Cruz, Jan. An Introduction to Community Arts and Activism. Community Arts Network Reading Room, 2002.
Epskamp, Kess. Healing Divided Societies. In People Building Peace: 35 Inspiring Stories from Around the World. Utrecht, Netherlands: European Platform for Conflict Prevention, 1999.
Faw Driver, Tom. The Magic of Ritual: Our Need for Liberating Rites That Transform Our Lives and Our Communities. Harper: San Francisco, 1991.
Goody, Jack. Against Ritual: Loosely Structured Thoughts on a Loosely Defined Topic. In Secular Ritual, edited by Sally F. Moore and Barbara G. Myerhoff. The Netherlands: Van Gorcum, 1977.
Ksenija, Bilbija, Jo Ellen Fair, Cynthia E. Milton, and Leigh Payne, eds. The Art of Truth-Telling About Authoritarian Rule. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 2005.
Lederach, John Paul. The Moral Imagination: The Art and Soul of Building Peace. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Liebmann, Marian, ed. Arts Approaches to Conflict. Bristol: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 1996.
McConachie, Bruce. Approaching the Structure of Feeling in Grassroots Theatre. TheatreTopics 8, no. 1 (1998): 33-53.
Schirch, Lisa. Ritual and Symbol in Peacebuilding. Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press, 2005.
Senehi, Jessica. Constructive Storytelling in Intercommunal Conflicts: Building Community, Building Peace. In Reconcilable Differences. Turning Points in Ethnopolitical Conflict, edited by Sean Byrne and Cynthia Irvin. West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press, 2000.
Senehi, Jessica. Constructive Storytelling: A Peace Process. Peace and Conflict Studies 9, no. 2 (2002): 41-63.
Shank, Michael and Lisa Schirch. Strategic Arts-Based Peacebuilding. Peace and Change 33, no. 2 (2008): 217-242.
Skyllstad, Kjell. Creating a Culture of Peace: The Performing Arts in Interethnic Negotiations. Intercultural Communication 4 (November 2000).
Urbain, Olivier. The Power of the Arts in Re-humanizing Self and Other, Presentation at Re-imagining Self and Other: Creativity and Ethical Action in the Aftermath of Violence. Symposium at Brandeis University, Waltham, MA, October 13-14, 2004.
Von Tonegeren, Paul, Malin Brenk, Marte Hellema, and Juliette Verhoeven, eds. People Building Peace II: Successful Stories of Civil Society. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2005.
Zartman, I. William, ed. Traditional Cures for Modern Conflicts: African Conflict Medicine. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1999.
Zelizer, Craig. The Role of Artistic Processes in Peacebuilding in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Peace and Conflict Studies 10, no. 2 (2004): 62-75.
Zelizer, Craig. Integrating Community Arts and Conflict Resolution: Lessons and Challenges from the Field. Community Arts Network,2007.
WebsitesIn Place of War (Researching Performance and War), The University of Manchester
Théâtre et Réconciliation
Recasting Reconciliation through Culture and the Arts
The Community Arts Network (CAN)
The Power of Culture