Transitional Justice: Bibliography: General

Academic resources

Akhavan, Payam. "Justice in the Hague, Peace in the Former Yugoslavia? A Commentary on the United Nations War Crimes Tribunal." Human Rights Quarterly 20, no. 4 (1998): 737-816.

Aoláin, Fionnuala Ní. "Expanding the Boundaries of Transitional Justice." Ethics and International Affairs 22, no. 2 (Summer 2008).

Aoláin, Fionnuala Ní and Colm Campbell. "The Paradox of Transition in Conflicted Democracies." Human Rights Quarterly 27, (2005): 172-213.

Arenhovel, Mark. "Democratization and Transitional Justice." Democratization 15, no. 3 (June 2008): 570-587.

Arriaza, Laura and Naomi Roht-Arriaza. "Social Reconstruction as a Local Process." International Journal of Transitional Justice 2, no. 3 (March 2002): 152-172.

Aukerman, Miriam J. "Extraordinary Evil, Ordinary Crime: A Framework for Understanding Transitional Justice." Harvard Human Rights Journal 15 (2002): 39-98.

Bar-Simon-Tov, Yaacov, ed. From Conflict Resolution to Reconciliation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Barahona de Brito, Alexandra, Carmen González-Enríquez, and Paloma Aguilar, eds. The Politics of Memory: Transitional Justice in Democratizing Societies. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Barkan, Elazar. The Guilt of Nations: Restitution and Negotiating Historical Injustices. New York: Norton, 2000.

Barsalou, Judy. "Managing Memory: Looking to Transitional Justice to Address Trauma." In Peacebuilding in Traumatized Societies, edited by Barry Hart. Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Plymouth, UK: University Press of America, 2008.

Basoglu, Metin, MD, PhD; Maria Livanou, PhD; Cvetana Crnobaric, MD; Tanja Franciškovic, MD, PhD; Enra Suljic, MD; Dijana Ðuric, BSc; Melin Vranešic, MD. "Psychiatric and Cognitive Effects of War in Former Yugoslavia: Association of Lack of Redress for Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Reactions." The Journal of the American Medical Association 294, no. 5 (2005): 580-590.

Bass, Gary J. Stay the Hand of Vengeance: The Politics of War Crimes Tribunals. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2003.

Bassiouni, M. Cherif, ed. Post-Conflict Justice. Ardsley, NY: Transnational Publishers, 2002.

Baxter, Victoria. Empirical Research Methodologies of Transitional Justice Mechanism. Stellenbosch , South Africa: Association for the Advancement of Science & CSVR, 2002.

Bell, Christine, Colm Campbell, and Fionnuala Ní Aoláin. "Justice Discourses in Transition." Social and Legal Studies 13, no. 3 (2004): 305-328.

Best, Geoffrey. Nuremburg and After: The Continuing History of War Crimes against Humanity. Reading: University of Reading, 1984.

Bickford, Louis. "Transitional Justice." In The Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity Vol. 3, 1045-1047. MacMillan Library Reference, 2004.

Biggar, Nigel, ed. Burying the Past: Making Peace and Doing Justice after Civil Conflict. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2003.

Bleeker, Mô, ed. Dealing with the Past and Transitional Justice: Creating Conditions for Peace, Human Rights, and the Rule of Law. Dealing with the Past Series, Swiss Peace Foundation, 2004.

Boraine, Alexander L. "Transitional Justice: A Holistic Interpretation." Journal of International Affairs 60, no. 1 (Fall/Winter 2006): 17-27.

Borer, Tristan Ann, ed. Telling the Truths: Truth Telling and Peace Building in Post-Conflict Societies. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2006.

Borneman, John. "Reconciliation after Ethnic Cleansing: Listening, Retribution, Affiliation." Public Culture 14, no. 2 (Spring 2002) : 281-302.

Brahm, Eric. "Getting to the Bottom of Truth: Evaluation of the Contribution of Truth Commissions to Post-Conflict Societies." Paper prepared for the Wisconsin Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies 20th Annual Conference, "Challenges and Paths to Justice." Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI, October 6-8, 2004.

Brahm, Eric. "Transitional Justice, Civil Society, and the Development of the Rule of Law in Post-Conflict Societies." International Journal of Not-for-Profit Law 9, no. 4 (August 2007): 62-72.

Brahm, Eric. "Uncovering the Truth: Examining Truth Commission Success and Impact." International Studies Perspectives 8, no. 1 (2006): 16-35.

Brouneus, Karen. "Reconciliation and Development: Study Prepared for Workshop 8 - 'Reconciliation.'" Building a Future on Peace and Justice, International Conference. Nuremberg, Germany, June 25-27, 2007.

Call, Charles T. "Is Transitional Justice Really Just?" Brown Journal of World Affairs 11, no. 1 (Summer/Fall 2004): 101-113.

Campbell, Kristen. "The New Law of Transitional Justice." Building a Future on Peace and Justice, International Conference. Nuremberg, Germany, June 25-27, 2007.

Chapman, Audrey R. "The Truth of Truth Commissions: Comparative Lessons from Haiti, South Africa, and Guatemala." Human Rights Quarterly 23 (2004): pp. 1-43.

Cobban, Helena. Amnesty after Atrocity? Healing Nations after Genocide and War Crimes. Boulder, CO: Paradigm, 2007.

Cohen, David. "Hybrid Justice in East Timor, Sierra Leone, and Cambodia: Lessons Learned and Prospects for the Future." Stanford Journal of International Law 43, no. 1 (2007): 1-38.

Cohen, Stanley. "State Crimes of Previous Regimes: Knowledge, Accountability, and the Policing of the Past." Law and Social Inquiry 20, no. 1 (Winter 1995): 7-50.

Cole, Elizabeth A. "Transitional Justice and the Reform of History Education." International Journal of Transitional Justice 1, no. 1 (March 2007): 115-137.

Crane, David. "White Man's Justice: Applying International Justice after Regional Third World Conflicts." Cardozo Law Review 27, no. 4 (2006):1683-1688.

Crocker, David A. "Reckoning With Past Wrongs: A Normative Framework." Ethics and International Affairs 13 (1999).

Daly, Erin. "Truth Skepticism: An Inquiry into the Value of Truth in Times of Transition." International Journal of Transitional Justice 2 (2008): 23-41.

De Grieff, Pablo. "Addressing the Past: Reparations for Gross Human Rights Abuses." In Civil War and the Rule of Law: Security, Development, Human Rights, edited by Agnes Hurwitz and Reyko Huang. Boulder and London: Lynne Rienner, 2008.

De Greiff, Pablo. "The Role of Apologies in National Reconciliation Processes: On Making Trustworthy Institutions Trusted." In The Age of Apology, edited by Mark Gibney and Rhoda E. Howard-Hassmann. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008.

De Grieff, Pablo, ed. The Handbook of Reparations. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Dickinson, Laura A. "The Promise of Hybrid Courts." American Journal of International Law 97, no. 2 (April 2003): 295-310.

Elster, Jon. Closing the Books: Transitional Justice in Historical Perspective. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Fletcher, Laurel E., and Harvey M. Weinstein. "Violence and Social Repair: Rethinking the Contribution of Justice to Reconciliation." Human Rights Quarterly 24 (2002): 573-639.

Flournoy, Michele and Michael Pan. "Dealing with Demons: Enhancing Justice and Reconciliation." In Winning the Peace: An American Strategy for Post-Conflict Reconstruction, edited by Robert C. Orr. Washington, D.C.: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2004.

Hamber, Brandon. "The Burdens of Truth: An Evaluation of the Psychological Support Services and Initiatives undertaken by the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission." American Imago 55, no. 1 (Spring 1998): 9-28.

Hamber, Brandon. "Do Sleeping Dogs Lie? The psychological implications of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in South Africa." Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, Presented 26 July 1995.

Hamber, Brandon. "Forgiveness and Reconciliation: A Critical Reflection." In Stories in Conflict: Towards Understanding and Healing. Derry: Yes Publications, 2008.

Hamber, Brandon. "Public Memorials and Reconciliation Process in Northern Ireland." Paper presented at the "Trauma and Transitional Justice in Divided Societies" Conference. Airlie House, Warrington, Virginia, USA, March 27-29, 2004.

Hamber, Brandon and Gráinne Kelly. "A Working Definition of Reconciliation." Belfast: Democratic Dialogue, 2004.

Hamber, Brandon and Hugo van der Merwe. "What is this Thing Called Reconciliation?" Reconciliation in Review 1, no. 1 (1998).

Hayner, Priscilla B. Unspeakable Truths: Facing the Challenge of Truth Commissions. New York and London: Routledge, 2002.

Hazan, Pierre. "Measuring the Impact of Punishment and Forgiveness: A Framework for Evaluating Transitional Justice." International Review of the Red Cross 88, no. 861 (March 2006).

Henkin, Alice H., ed. The Legacy of Abuse: Confronting the Past, Facing the Future. The Aspen Institute; New York University School of Law, 2002.

Higonnet, Etelle R. "Restructuring Hybrid Courts: Local Empowerment and National Criminal Justice Reform." Arizona Journal of International and Comparative Law 23 (Spring 2006): 347-435.

Hughes, Edel, William A. Schabas and Ramesh Thakur, eds. Atrocities and International Accountability: Beyond Transitional Justice. Tokyo, New York, and Paris: United Nations University Press, 2007.

Humphrey, Michael. "From Victim to Victimhood: Truth Commissions and Trials as Rituals of Political Transition and Individual Healing." The Australian Journal of Anthropology 14, no. 2 (2003): 171-187

Humphrey, Michael. The Politics of Atrocity and Reconciliation: From Terror to Trauma. London: Routledge, 2002.

Jacoby, Susan. Wild Justice: The Evolution of Revenge. New York: Harper and Row, 1988.

Kaminski, Marek M., et al. "Normative and Strategic Aspects of Transitional Justice." Journal of Conflict Resolution 50, no. 3 (June 2006): 295-302.

Kaufman, Stuart J. Modern Hatreds: The Symbolic Politics of Ethnic War. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 2001.

Kerr, Rachel and Eirin Mobekk. Peace and Justice: Seeking Accountability after War. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, 2007.

Kritz, Neil J, ed. Transitional Justice: How Emerging Democracies Reckon with Former Regimes. Vol. 1-3. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, 1995.

Lambourne, Wendy. "Post-Conflict Peacebuilding: Meeting Human Needs for Justice and Reconciliation." Peace, Conflict and Development 4 (2004).

Leebaw, Bronwyn Ann. "The Irreconcilable Goals of Transitional Justice." Human Rights Quarterly 30, no. 1 (February 2008).

Llewellyn, Jennifer. "Restorative Justice and Peacebuilding in Post-Conflict Societies." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th Annual Convention, Bridging Multiple Divides. San Francisco, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008.

Linton, Suzannah. "Cambodia, East Timor, and Sierra Leone: Experiments in International Justice." Criminal Law Forum 12 (2001): 185-246.

Lundy, Patricia, and Mark McGovern.  "Whose Justice? Rethinking Transitional Justice from the Bottom Up." Journal of Law and Society 35, no. 2 (June 2008): 265-292.

Mallinder, Louise. Amnesty, Human Rights and Political Transitions: Bridging the Peace and Justice Divide. Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2008.

Mallinder, Louise. "Can Amnesties and International Justice be Reconciled?" International Journal of Transitional Justice 1, no. 2 (July 2007): 208-230.

Mani, Rama.  Beyond Retribution: Seeking Justice in the Shadows of War. Cambridge: Polity/Blackwell, 2002.

Mani, Rama. "The Dilemmas of Expanding Transitional Justice." International Journal of Transitional Justice (2008): 1-13. 

Mani, Rama. "Rebuilding an Inclusive Political Community After War." Security Dialogue 36, no. 4 (December 2005): 511-526.

Marks, Stephen. "Forgetting the Policies and Practices of the Past: Impunity in Cambodia." The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs 18 (Summer 1994).

Mayer-Rieckh, Alexander and Pablo de Greiff, eds. Justice as Prevention: Vetting Public Employees in Transitional Societies. New York: Social Science Research Council, 2007.

Mazariegos, Oliver. "The Recovery of Historical Memory Project of the Human Rights Office of the Archbishop of Guatemala: Data Processing, Database Representation." In Making the Case: Investigating Large Scale Human Rights Violations Using Information Systems and Data Analysis, edited by Patrick Ball, Herbert F. Spirer, and Louise Spirer. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2000.

McAdams, James, ed. Transitional Justice and the Rule of Law in New Democracies. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1997.

McEvoy, Kieran. "Beyond Legalism: Towards a Thicker Understanding of Transitional Justice." Journal of Law and Society 34, no. 4 (December 2007): 411-440.

McEvoy, Kieran and Lorna McGregor, eds. Transitional Justice From Below: Grassroots Activism and the Struggle for Change. Oxford, UK: Hart Publishing, 2008.

Mendeloff, David. "Truth-Seeking, Truth-Telling, and Post-conflict Peacebuilding: Curb the Enthusiasm?" International Studies Review 6, no. 3 (November 2004): 355-380.

Mendez, Juan. "Accountability for Past Abuses." Human Rights Quarterly 19, no. 2 (1997): 255-282.

Minow, Martha. Between Vengeance and Forgiveness: Facing History after Genocide and Mass Violence. Boston: Beacon Press, 1998.

Minow, Martha and Nancy L. Rosenblum. Breaking the Cycles of Hatred: Memory, Law, and Repair. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003.

Moreno Ocampo, Luis. "Transitional Justice in Ongoing Conflicts." International Journal of Transitional Justice 1, no. 1 (2007):8-9.

Nagy, Rosemary. "Transitional Justice as a Global Project: Critical Reflections." Third World Quarterly 29, no. 2 (March 2008): 275-289.

Naidu, Ereshnee. "The Ties That Bind: Strengthening the links between memorialization and transitional justice." The Center for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, Transitional Justice Project Brief, August 2006. 

Neier, Aryeh. War Crimes: Brutality, Genocide, Terror, and the Struggle for Justice. New York: Times Books, 1998.

Nesiah, Vasuki. "Truth vs. Justice? Commissions and Courts." In Human Rights and Conflict: Exploring the Links between Rights, Law, and Peacebuilding, edited by Julie A. Mertus and Jeffrey W. Helsing. Washington DC: United States Institute of Peace Press, 2006.

Nouwen, Sarah M.H. "Hybrid courts: The hybrid category of a new type of international crimes courts." Utrecht Law Review 2, no. 2 (December 2006): 190-214.

O'Connell, Jamie. "Gambling with the Psyche: Does Prosecuting Human Rights Violators Console Their Victims?" Harvard International Law Journal 46, no. 2 (Summer 2005): 294-345.

O'Flaherty, Michael. "Future Protection of Human Rights in Post-Conflict Societies: the Role of the United Nations." Human Rights Law Review 3, no. 1 (2003).

Olson, Laura M. "Provoking the Dragon on the Patio - Matters of Transitional Justice: Penal Repression vs. Amnesties." International Review of the Red Cross 88, no 862 (June 2006).

Oomen, Barbara. "Examining the Implications of Global Justice." Working paper based on presentation at the Re-Imagining Peace International Seminar, Charlottesville, VA, November 2004.

Orentlicher, Diane F. "Settling Accounts Revisited: Reconciling Global Norms with Local Agency." International Journal of Transitional Justice 1, no. 1 (2007): 10-22.

O'Shea, Andreas. Amnesty for Crime in International Law and Practice. Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2002.

Osiel, Marc. Mass Atrocity, Collective Memory and the Law. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1997.

Osiel, Mark J. "Why Prosecute? Critics of Punishment for Mass Atrocity." Human Rights Quarterly 22 (2000): 118-147.

Paige, Arthur. "How Transitions Reshaped Human Rights: A Conceptual History of Transitional Justice." Human Rights Quarterly (forthcoming, May 2009).

Pankhurst, Donna. "Issues of Justice and Reconciliation in Complex Political Emergencies: Conceptualising Reconciliation, Justice and Peace." Third World Quarterly 20, no.1 (1999): 239-255.

Pham, Phuong and Patrick Vinck. "Empirical Research and the Development and Assessment of Transitional Justice Mechanisms." International Journal of Transitional Justice 1, no. 2 (July 2007): 231-248.

Phelps, Teresa Godwin. Shattered Voices: Language, Violence and the Work of Truth Commissions. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004.

Philpott, Daniel, ed. The Politics of Past Evil: Religion, Reconciliation, and the Dilemmas of Transitional Justice.  Notre Dame: Notre Dame University Press, 2006.

Philpott, Daniel. "Religion, Reconciliation and Transitional Justice: The State of the Field." New York: Social Science Research Council, October 2007.

Philpott, Daniel. "What Religion Brings to the Politics of Transitional Justice." Journal of International Affairs 61, no. 1 (2007): 93-110.

Pouligny, Beatrice. "Building Peace in Situations of Post-Mass Crimes." International Peacekeeping 9, no. 2 (Summer 2002): 201-220.

Pouligny, Beatrice. "The Forgotten Dimensions of Transitional Justice Mechanisms: Cultural Meanings and Imperatives for Survivors of Violent Conflicts." Paper presented at the Global Justice, Local Legitimacy International Conference, University of Amsterdam, January 2005.

Pouligny, Beatrice. Théâtre & Justice au Burundi. Paris: CERI-Sciences Po/CNRS and Washington, DC: Georgetown University School of Foreign Service, 2007.

Pouligny, Beatrice.  "UN Peace Operations, INGOs, NGOs, and promoting the rule of law: exploring the intersection of international and local norms in different postwar contexts." Journal of Human Rights 2, no. 3 (September 2003): 359-377.

Pouligny, Beatrice, Simon Chesterman and Albrecht Schnabel, eds. After Mass Crime: Rebuilding States and Communities. Tokyo: United Nations University Press, 2007.

Pouligny, Beatrice, Shirley Gunn, and Zukiswa Khalipha. "Breaking the Silence: A Luta Continua. An art project about memory and healing in post-Apartheid South Africa." Cape Town,, South Africa: Human Rights Media Centre, 2007.

Quinn, Joanna R. "The Role of Informal Mechanisms in Transitional Justice."  A paper prepared for presentation on the panel, Transitional Justice: Local and International Dimensions, at the Canadian Political Science Association Annual Meeting, 2 June 2005.  

Quinn, Joanna R. "Chicken and Egg? Sequencing in Transitional Justice: The Case of Uganda." Working paper.  Accessed through the Network of Transitional Justice Researchers.

Randall, Lawrence and Cosme R. Pulano, "Transitional Justice Reporting Audit: Review of Media Coverage of the Truth and Reconciliation Process in Liberia," The Liberia Media Center (LMC), 2008.

Ratner, Steven R. and Jason S. Abrams, eds. Accountability for Human Rights Atrocities in International Law: Beyond the Nuremberg Legacy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Reiter, Andrew G, Tricia D. Olsen, and Leigh A. Payne. "Behind the Justice Cascade: Sequencing Transitional Justice in New Democracies." Paper presented at International Studies Association conference, March 2008. 

Rigby, Andrew. Justice and Reconciliation after the Violence. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2001.

Rigby, Andrew. "Reflections on Reconciliation." Committee on Conflict Transformation Support 29 (December 2005/January 2006).

Roht-Arriaza, Naomi. The Pinochet Effect: Transnational Justice in the Age of Human Rights. Philadelphia , PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2005.

Roht-Arriaza, Naomi and Javier Mariezcurrena, eds. Transitional Justice in the Twenty-First Century: Beyond Truth versus Justice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Rotberg, Robert I. and Dennis Thompson, eds. Truth v. Justice: The Morality of Truth Commissions. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000.

Sewel, James P. "Justice and Truth in Transition." Global Governance 8, no. 1 (2002): 199-134.

Sikkink, Kathryn and Carrie Booth Walling. "The Impact of Human Rights Trials in Latin America." Journal of Peace Research 44, no. 4 (March 2007): 427-445.

Simpson, Graeme. "A Snake Gives Birth to a Snake: Politics and Crime in the Transition to Democracy in South Africa." In Justice Gained? Crime and Crime Control in South Africas Transition, eds. Bill Dixon and Elrena van der Spuy. Cape Town: University of Cape Town Press, 2005.

Skaar, Elin, Siri Gloppen and Astri Suhrke, eds. Roads to Reconciliation. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2005.

Snyder, Jack and Leslie Vinjamuri. "Trials and Errors: Principle and Pragmatism in Strategies of International Justice." International Security 28, no. 3 (Winter 2003/04): 5-44.

Sooka, Yasmin. "Dealing with the past and transitional justice: building peace through accountability." International Review of the Red Cross 88, no. 862 (June 2006).

Sriram, Chandra Lekha and Amy Ross. "Geographies of Crime and Justice: Contemporary Transitional Justice and the Creation of Zones of Impunity." International Journal of Transitional Justice 1, no. 1 (March 2007): 45-65.

Sriram, Chandra Lekha. "Justice as Peace: Liberal Peacebuilding and Strategies of Transitional Justice." Global Society 21, no. 4 (October 2007): 579 - 591.

Sriram, Chandra Lekha. Globalizing Justice for Mass Atrocities: A Revolution in Accountability. New York: Routledge, 2005.

Sriram, Chandra Lekha. Confronting Past Human Rights Violations: Justice vs. Peace in Times of Transition. New York, NY: Frank Cass, 2002.

Stahn, Carsten. "United Nations peacebuilding, amnesties and alternative forms of justice: A change in practice?"  International Review of the Red Cross 84, no 845 (March 2002).

Steiner, Henry, ed. Truth Commissions: A Comparative Assessment. World Peace Foundation Reports. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997

Stover, Eric. The Witnesses. War Crimes and the Promise of Justice in The Hague. Univesity of Pennsylvania Press, 2005.

Stover, Eric and Harvey M. Weinstein.  My Neighbor, My Enemy: Justice and Community in the Aftermath of Mass Atrocity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Teitel, Ruti. "Editorial Note - Transitional Justice Globalized." International Journal of Transitional Justice 2, no. 1 (2008): 1-4.

Teitel, Ruti G. Transitional Justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Teitel, Ruti G. "Transitional Justice Genealogy." Harvard Human Rights Journal 16 (2003): 69-94.

Torpey, John C. Making Whole What Has Been Smashed: On Reparation Politics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2006.

Transitional Justice and Development. Special Issue. International Journal of Transitional Justice 2, no. 3 (December 2008).

van der Merwe, Hugo, Victoria Baxter and Audrey Chapman, ed. (Eds.). Assessing the Impact of Transitional Justice: Challenges for Empirical Research. Washington DC: USIP Press Books, 2009.

Van Zyl, Paul. "Promoting Transitional Justice in Post-Conflict Societies." In Security Governance in Post-Conflict Peacebuilding, eds. Alan Bryden and Heiner Hänggi, 209-232. Geneva: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF), 2005.

Villa-Vicencio, Charles and Erik Doxtader, eds. The Provocations of Amnesty: Memory, Justice and Impunity. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 2003.

Vinjamuri, Leslie and Jack Snyder. "Advocacy and Scholarship in the Study of International War Crime Tribunals and Transitional Justice." Annual Review of Political Science 7(2004): 345-62.

Waldorf, Lars. "Mass Justice for Mass Atrocity: Rethinking Local Justice as Transitional Justice." Temple Law Review 79, no. 1 (Spring 2006): 1-87.

Zartman, William and Victor A. Kremenyuk, eds.  Peace versus Justice: Negotiating Forward and Backward-Looking Outcomes. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2005.

Zehr, Howard. The Little Book of Restorative Justice. Intercourse, PA: Good Books, 2002.

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News and reports

IRIN In-Depth, Justice for a Lawless World? Rights and reconciliation in a new era of international law. July 2006.

Keeley, Graham. "A painful past uncovered." The Guardian, August 21, 2008.

MacFarquhar, Neil. "In Morocco, a Rights Movement, at the King's Pace." The New York Times, October 1, 2005.

Nolen, Stephanie. "Africa's unjust deserts." Globe and Mail, June 14, 2008.

Snyder, Jack and Leslie Vinjamuri. "A midwife for peace." International Herald Tribune, September 26, 2006.

Timberg, Craig. "Sierra Leone Special Court's Narrow Focus." The Washington Post, March 26, 2008.

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Policy analysis and practitioner documents

Alexander, Jane. A Scoping Study of Transitional Justice and Poverty Reduction. London: UK Department for International Development (DFID), January 2003.

Anderlini, Sanam Naraghi, Camille Pampell Conway and Lisa Kays. "Transitional Justice and Reconciliation." In Inclusive Security, Sustainable Peace: A Toolkit for Advocacy and Action. Hunt Alternatives Fund, 2007.

Barsalou, Judy. "Trauma and Transitional Justice in Divided Societies." United States Institute of Peace, Special Report 135, April 2005.

Barsalou, Judy and Victoria Baxter. "The Urge to Remember: The Role of Memorials in Social Reconstruction and Transitional Justice." United States Institute of Peace, Stabilization and Reconstruction Series No. 5, January 2007.

Berns, Jessica and Abdul Wahab Musab. "Reflection: What We Have Learned from Working together at the Intersection of Transitional Justice and Coexistence." Transitional Justice Monitor 1, no. 2 (July 2008).

Bloomfield, David, Teresa Barnes, and Luc Huyse.  Reconciliation after Violent Conflict: A Handbook.  Stockholm, Sweden: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA), 2003.

Cobban, Helena.  "Think Again: International Courts." Foreign Policy, 8 May 2006.

Crawford, Julia. Reporting Transitional Justice: A Handbook for Journalists. BBC World Services Trust and International Center for Transitional Justice, 2007.

Human Rights Watch. Narrowing the Impunity Gap: Trials before Bosnias War Crimes Chamber. February 2007.

Huyse, Luc, and Mark Salter. Eds. Reconciliation and Traditional Justice after Violent Conflict: Learning from African Experiences. Stockholm: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, 2008.

International Refugee Rights Initiative.  International Justice in Africa: Prospects and ChallengesReport on Workshop Proceedings, 17 July 2008.

Katshung Joseph, Yav. "Truth Commissions and Prosecutions: Two Sides of the Same Coin?" Global Policy Forum, March 17, 2008.

Lie, Tove Grete, Helga Malmin Binningsbo, and Scott Gates. "Post-Conflict Justice and Sustainable Peace." World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 4191, April 2007.

Magarrell, Lisa. "Reparations in Theory and Practice." New York: International Center on Transitional Justice (ICTJ), 2007.

Mobekk, Eirin. Transitional Justice and Security Sector Reform: Enabling Sustainable Peace. Occasional Paper No. 13. Geneva: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces, November 2006.

Mobekk, Eirin. "Transitional Justice in Post-Conflict Societies--Approaches to Reconciliation." In After Intervention: Public Security Management in Post-Conflict Societies: From Intervention to Sustainable Local Ownership, edited by Anja H. Ebnother and Philipp H. Fluri. Vienna and Geneva: PfP Consortium of Defence Academies and Security Studies Institutes, 2005.

Mokhiber, Craig. Local Perspectives: Foreign Aid to the Justice Sector, Geneva: International Council on Human Rights Policy, 2000

New Tactics in Human Rights. "Featured Dialogue: Truth and Reconciliation Processes: Aiding Community Healing through Addressing Impunity." March 26-April 1, 2008.

Nuremberg Declaration on Peace and Justice. Building a Future on Peace and Justice, International Conference. Nuremberg, Germany, June 25-27, 2008.

Office of the United Nations High Commission for Human Rights(OHCHR). Rule of Law Tools for Post-Conflict States: Prosecution Initiatives. New York and Geneva: United Nations, 2006.

Office of the United Nations High Commission for Human Rights(OHCHR). Rule of Law Tools for Post-Conflict States: Truth Commissions. New York and Geneva: United Nations, 2006.

Office of the United Nations High Commission for Human Rights(OHCHR). Rule of Law Tools for Post-Conflict States: Vetting, an operational framework. New York and Geneva: United Nations, 2006.

Office of the United Nations High Commission for Human Rights(OHCHR). Rule of Law Tools for Post-Conflict States: Reparation Programmes. New York and Geneva: United Nations, 2006

Pavon, Beatriz. "Combating Impunity: Transitional Justice in the Aftermath of Mass Atrocities." UN Chronicle XLI, no. 3 (2004).

Peuraca, Branka. "Can Faith-Based NGOs Advance Faith-Based Reconciliation? The Case of Bosnia and Herzegovina." U.S. Institute for Peace: Special Report No. 103, March 2003.

Reddy, Paavani. "Truth and Reconciliation Commissions: Instruments for Ending Impunity and Building Lasting Peace." UN Chronicle XLI, no. 2 (2004).

Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Entered into force 1 July 2002.

Samset, Ingrid, Stina Petersen, and Vibeke Wang. Maintaining the Process: Aid to Transitional Justice in Rwanda and Guatemala, 1995-2005. Working Group on Development and Peace (FriEnt), November 2007.

Sisson, Jonathan. Ed. Dealing with the Past in Post-Conflict Societies: Ten Years after the Peace Accords in Guatemala and Bosnia-Herzegovina. SwissPeace Foundation, Conference Paper, September 2007.

Tepperman, Jonathan D. "Truth and Consequences." Foreign Affairs 81, no. 2 (March/April 2002).

Thoms, Oskar N.T., James Ron, and Roland Paris. The Effects of Transitional Justice Mechanisms: A Summary of Empirical Research Findings and Implications for Analysts and Practitioners. University of Ottawa, Canada: Centre for International Policy Studies, April 2008.

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Programming for Justice: Access for All, A practitioners guide to a human rights-based approach to access to justice. Bangkok, Thailand: UNDP Regional Centre, 2005.

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Vetting Public Employees in Post-Conflict Settings: Operational Guidelines. New York: UNDP Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery, 2006.

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UN Official Documents

United Nations. Updated set of principles for the protection and promotion of human rights through action to combat impunity.  Commission on Human Rights.  E/CN.4/2005/102/Add.1, 8 February 2005.

United Nations Security Council. The Rule of Law and Transitional Justice in Conflict and Post-conflict Societies. Report of the Secretary General, S/2004/616. 23 August 2004.

UN General Assembly. Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparation for Victims of Gross International Human Rights Law and Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law. A/RES/60/147. 21 March 2006.

UN Secretary-General. UN Approach to Justice for Children. Guidance Note of the Secretary-General, NY: United Nations, September 2008.

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United Nations agencies

OHCHR (Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights)

UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) - BCPR (Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery)-Transitional Justice

UN Human Rights Council

International, "Hybrid," & National Criminal Courts and Tribunals

Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC)

International Criminal Court (ICC)

International Court of Justice (ICJ)

International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY)

International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR)

Special Court for Sierra Leone

Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina (War Crimes Chamber)

Truth & Reconciliation Commissions (including reports)

Chile-Report of the National Commission on Truth and Reconciliation

Guatemala: Memory of Silence - Report of the Commission for Historical Clarification (CEH)

El Salvador - From Madness to Hope: the 12-Year war in El Salvador: Report of the Commission on the Truth for El Salvador

Liberia - Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Liberia

Morocco- Moroccan Justice and Reconciliation Commission

Peru Truth and Reconciliation Commission

Peru Truth and Reconciliation Commission (Final Report)

South Africa Truth and Reconciliation Commission

Sierra Leone - The Final Report of the Sierra Leone Truth and Reconciliation Commission

Timor-Leste Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation (CAVR)

International NGOs, Research Centers, and Networks

African Transitional Justice Research Network (ATJRN)

Case Western Reserve University - Frederick K. Cox International Law Center

War Crimes Research Portal

Center for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation

Coalition for the International Criminal Court

Eastern Mennonite University - Center for Justice and Peacebuilding (CJP)

Global Justice Center

Harvard University-Project for Justice in Times of Transition

International Center for Transitional Justice (ICTJ)

International IDEA - Traditional Justice and Reconciliation Project

International Internet Bibliography on Transitional Justice

Institute of Justice and Reconciliation (IJR) (Cape Town, South Africa)

Justice in Perspective: Truth, Justice, and Reconciliation in Transition

New York University - Program on Transitional Justice

Notre Dame School of Law - Transitional Justice Project (TJP)

Peace, Conflict and Coexistence Studies - Brandeis University

Political Apologies and Reparations

Project on International Courts and Tribunals

REDRESS - Seeking Reparation for Torture Survivors

African International Courts and Tribunals

Restorative Justice Online

Strategic Choices in the Design of Truth Commissions

Track Impunity Always (TRIAL)

Transitional Justice Forum (TJF)

University of California Berkeley War Crimes Studies Center (WCSC)

University of Sarajevo-Institute for Research of Crimes Against Humanity and International Law

University of Ulster - Transitional Justice Institute (TJI)

University of Wisconsin-Madison - Transitional Justice Data Base Project

USIP Truth Commissions Digital Collection

For further resources on transitional justice, go to the Transitional Justice Data Base Project (University of Wisconsin-Madison)

The University of Wisconsin-Madison's Transitional Justice Data Base Project provides the most comprehensive online bibliography on transitional justice.  In addition, the website provides teaching resources on transitional justice for undergrad and graduate studies, as well as extensive links to TJ resources and centers, official websites of trials and truth commissions, and international and regional courts.

The news, reports, and analyses herein are selected due to there relevance to issues of peacebuilding, or their significance to policymakers and practitioners. The content prepared by HPCR International is meant to summarize main points of the current debates and does not necessarily reflect the views of HPCR International or the Program of Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research. In addition, HPCR International and contributing partners are not responsible for the content of external publications and internet sites linked to this portal.