Community Policing: Bibliography

Academic Resources

Alderson, John. Policing Freedom: A Commentary on the Dilemmas of Policing in Western Democracies. Plymouth: Macdonalds & Evans, 1979.

Baker, Bruce. Who Do People Turn to for Policing in Sierra Leone? Journal of Contemporary African Studies, Vol. 23, No. 3 (September 2005): 371-390.

Baker, Bruce. Living with non-state policing in South Africa: the issues and dilemmas. Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 40, No. 1 (2002): 29-53.

Bayley, D. and C. Shearing. The Future of Policing. Law and Society Review, Vol. 30, No. 3 (1996): 585-606.

Bentham, Jeremy. Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996 (first published 1789).

Brogden, Michael. "Implementing Community Policing in South Africa: A Failure of History, and of Theory. Liverpool Law Review, Vol. 24, No. 3 (October 2002): 157-179.

Brogden, Mike. Horses for Courses and Thin Blue Lines: Community Policing in Transitional Society. Police Quarterly, Vol. 8, No. 1 (March 2005): 64-98.

Brogden, Michael and Preeti Nijhar. Community Policing: National and International Models and Approaches. Portland: Willan Publishing, 2005.

Call, Charles. Competing Donor Approaches to Post-Conflict Police Reform. Journal of Conflict, Security and Development, Vol. 2, No. 1 (Spring 2002): 99-120.

Call, Charles. Democratisation, War and State-Building: Constructing the Rule of Law in El Salvador. Journal of Latin American Studies, Vol. 35, No. 4 (November 2003): 827-862.

Call, Charles. Pinball and Punctuated Equilibrium: The Birth of a Democratic Policing Norm? Paper for the Annual conference of the International Studies Association in Los Angeles, CA, March 16, 2000.

Call, Charles and Will Stanley. Protecting the People: Public Security Choices after Civil War. Global Governance, Vol. 7, No. 2 (April-June 2001): 151-172.

Call, Charles and Michael Barnett. Looking for a Few Good Cops: Peacekeeping, Peacebuilding and the UN Civilian Police. International Peacekeeping, Vol. 6, No. 4 (Winter 1999): 43-68.

Celador, Gemma Collantes. Police Reform: Peacebuilding through `Democratic Policing? In Peace Without Politics?: Ten Years of International State-Building in Bosnia, edited by David Chandler, 58-70. New York: Routledge, 2006.

Chevigny, Paul. The Edge of the Knife: Police Violence in the Americas. New York: The New Press, 1995.

Crank, John P. Watchman and Community: Myth and Institutionalization in Policing. Law & Society, Vol. 28, No. 2 (1994): 325-351.

Dinnen, Sinclair, Community Policing in Papua New Guinea, Criminology Australia, 4, no. 3 (January/February 1993).

Dinnen, Sinclair, Abby Mcleod, and Gordon Peake, Police Building in Weak States: Australian Approaches in Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands, Civil Wars, 8, no. 2 (2006): 87-108.

Dixon, Bill. Zero Tolerance: The Hard Edge of Community Policing. African Security Review 9, no. 3 (2000).

Donais, Timothy. Back to Square One: The Politics of Police Reform in Haiti. Civil Wars, Vol. 7, No. 3 (Autumn 2005): 270-287.

Ellison, Graham and Conor OReilly. From Empire to Iraq and the War on Terror: The Transplantation and Commodification of the (Northern) Irish Policing Experience. Police Quarterly 11, no. 4 (2008).

Friedmann, Robert. Community Policing: Comparative Perspectives and Prospects. New York: St Martins Press, 1992.

Goldsmith, Andrew. Policing Weak States: Citizen Safety and State Responsibility. Policing and Society, Vol. 13, No. 1 (2002): 3-21.

Goldsmith, Andrew and Sinclair Dinnen. Transnational Police Building: critical lessons from Timor-Leste and Solomon Islands. Third World Quarterly, Vol. 28, No. 6 (September 2007): 1091-1109.

Hasen, A. Strengthening Indigenous Police Capacity and the Rule of Law in the Balkans. In The United Nations and Regional Security: Europe and Beyond, edited by Michael Charles Pugh, Michael and Waheguru Pal Singh Sidhu, 175-191. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2003.

Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan. London: Penguin Classics, 1982 (first published 1651).

Holm, Tor Tanke and Espen Barth Eide. Peacebuilding and Police Reform. Portland, OR: Routledge, 2000.

Hume, David. An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998 (first published 1751).

Jackson, Robert and Carl Rosberg. Why Africas Weak States Persist: The Empirical and The Juridical in Statehood, World Politics, Vol. 35, No. 1 (1982): 1-24.

Jarman, Neil. Peacebuilding and Policing - The Role of Community-based Initiatives. Shared Space, Issue 3 (November 2006): 31-44.

Johnston, Les. Transnational Private Policing: The Impact of Global Commercial Security. In Issues in Transnational Policing, J. Sheptycki.  London: Routledge, 2000.

Klockars, Carl. The Rhetoric of Community Policing, In Community Policing: Rhetoric or Reality, J. Greene and S. Mastrosfski.New York: Praeger, 1988.

Le Billon, Philippe. Thought Piece: What is the impact: Effects of Corruption in Post-Conflict. Paper for The Nexus: Corruptions, Conflict & Peacebuilding Colloquium, Tufts University, April 12 and 13, 2007.

Locke, John. Two Treaties of Government. Edited by Peter Laslett. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988 (first published 1689).

Lyons, William. The Politics of Community Policing: Rearranging the Power to Punish. Michigan: University of Michigan, 1999.

Malin, Mark. Police Reform in South Africa: Peacebuilding without Peacekeepers. African Security Review 8, no. 3 (1999).

Marenin, Otwin. The goal of democracy in international police assistance programs. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management, Vol. 21, No. 1 (1998): 159-177.

Marenin, Otwin. Building a Global Police Studies Community. Police Quarterly, Vol. 8, No. 1 (2005): 99-136.

Marenin, Otwin. Restoring Policing Systems in Conflict Torn Nations: Process, Problems, Prospects. DCAF Occasional Paper 7, 2005.

McCormick, David H. From Peacekeeping to Peacebuilding: Restructuring Military and Police Institutions in El Salvador In Keeping the Peace: Multidimensional UN Operations in Cambodia and El Salvador, edited by Michael W. Doyle, Ian Johnstone and Robert C. Orr. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Menkhaus, Ken. Vicious circles and the security development nexus in Somalia. Conflict, Security & Development, Vol. 4, No. 2 (August 2004): 149-165.

Miller, Susan L. Gender and Community Policing. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1999.

Mills, John Stuart. Utilitarianism. Edited by George Sher. Indianapolis and Cambridge: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 1979 (first published 1863).

Minnar, Anthony. Oversight and monitoring of non-state/private policing: The private security practitioners in South Africa, in Private Security in Africa: Manifestations, Challenges and Regulations. Edited by Sabelo Gumedze. ISS Monograph Series 139, 2007.

Neild, Rachel. Democratic Police Reforms in War-Torn Societies. Conflict, Security and Development, Vol. 1, No. 1 (April 2001): 21-43.

Nitzschke, Heiko and Kaysie Studdard, The Legacies of War Economies: Challenges and Options for Peacemaking and Peacebuilding. International Peacekeeping, Vol. 12, No. 2 (Summer 2005): 222-239.

Rosenbaum, Dennis (ed.). The Challenge of Community Policing. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1994).

Ruteere, Matuma and Marie-Emmanuelle Pommerolle, Democratizing Security or Decentralizing Repression?  The Ambiguities of Community Policing in Kenya, African Affairs, 102 (2003): 587-604.

Ryan, Barry J. What the Police are Supposed to Do: Contrasting Expectations of Community Policing in Serbia. Policing and Society, Vol. 17, No. 1 (March 1, 2007): 1-20.

Sganga, Cristina. Human Rights Education - As a Tool for the Reform of the Police. Journal of Social Science Education, No. 1 (2006).

Simelane, Hamilton Sipho. The State, Security Dilemma, and the Development of the Private Security Sector in Swaziland, in Private Security in Africa: Manifestations, Challenges and Regulations. Edited by Sabelo Gumedze. ISS Monograph Series 139, 2007.

Spuy, Elrena van der. Regionalism in Policing: From lessons in Europe to Developments in South Africa. African Security Review, Vol. 6, No. 6 (1997).

Thacher, David. Conflicting values in Community Policing. Law and Society Review, Vol. 35, No. 4 (2001): 765-798.

Trojanowicz, Robert and Bonnie Bucqueroux. Community Policing: A Contemporary Perspective. Cincinnati: Anderson, 1990.

Vejnovic, Dusko and Velibor Lalic. Community Policing in a Changing World: A Case Study of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Police Practice and Research, Vol. 6, No. 4. (September 2005): 363-373.

Weber, Max. The Profession and Vocation of Politics.In Political Writings, edited by Peter Lassman. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Wisler, Dominque and Ihekwoaba D. Onwudiwe. Community Policing in Comparison. Police Quarterly 11, no. 4 (2008).

Wright, Alan. Policing: An Introduction to Concepts and Practice. Devon: Willan Publishing, 2001.

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News and Reports

Carlotta, Gall. Community Policing Taught by Americans in Kosovo. New York Times, September 8, 1999.

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Policy Analysis and Practitioner Documents

Amnesty International. Policing to protect human rights: A survey of police practice in countries of the Southern African Development Community, 1997-2002. London: Amnesty International Publications, 2002.

Amnesty International. The Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste: A new police service - a new beginning. London: Amnesty International Publications, 2003.

Amnesty International. 2006 Annual Report for Haiti. In Amnesty International Report 2006: The State of the Worlds Human Rights. London: Amnesty International Publications, 2006.

Baker, Bruce. Post-conflict Policing: Lessons from Uganda 18 Years On. Journal of Humanitarian Assistance (July 12,2004).

Bayley, David H. Democratizing the Police Abroad: What to Do and How to Do It. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, U.S Department of Justice, 2001.

Bayley, David H. Who are we kidding? Or Developing Democracy through Police Reform. Workshop Papers and Highlights, Policing in Emerging Democracies, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC.

Bayley, David. Community Policing: The Doctrine. Paper for the Police Division, Department of Peacekeeping Operations, United Nations, May 2005.

Bayley, David and Clifford Shearing. The New Structure of Policing: Description, Conceptualization and Research Agenda. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, 2001.

Bureau of Justice Assistance. Understanding Community Policing: A Framework for Action. Monograph, Bureau of Justice Assistance, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington DC.

Call, Charles T. Challenges in Police Reform: Promoting Effectiveness and Accountability. IPA Policy Report, International Peace Academy, New York.

Caparini, Mariana and Graham Day. Democratic Control of the Police and Police Reform in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Serbia. Working Paper Series, No. 2, Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of the Armed Forced (DCAF), Geneva.

Centre for Development and Security Analysis (CEDSA). Women in Security. Peace, Security and Development Update, issue 3, CEDSA, March 2008.

Davis, Robert, Nicole Henderson, and Cybele Merrick, Community Policing: Variations on the Western Model in the Development World, Police Practice and Research, 4, no. 3 (2003): 285-300.

DeBlieck, Sean. The Critical Link: Community Policing Practices in Southeastern Europe: UNDP Albania/SSSR Programme, UNDP Albania, February 2007.

Dixon, Bill. The Globalization of Democratic Policing: Sector Policing and Zero Tolerance in the new South Africa. Cape Town: The Institute of Criminology, University of Cape Town, 2000.

European Platform for Policing and Human Rights. Police and NGOs: Why and how human rights NGOs and police services can and should work together. European Platform for Policing and Human Rights, December 2004.

Flynn, Daniel W. Defining the Community in Community Policing. Monograph. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, July 1998.

Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Peace Support Operations: Information and Guidance for UK Police Personnel. First edition. London: Foreign and Commonwealth Office, April 2007.

Greene Owen and Simon Rynn. Linking and Co-ordinating DDR and SSR for Human Security after Conflict: Issues, Experience and Priorities. Thematic Working Paper 2, Centre for International Cooperation and Security, University of Bradford, July 2008.

Groenewald, Hesta and Gordon Peake. Policing Reform through Community-Based Policing: Philosophy and Guidelines for Implementation. New York: International Peace Academy and Saferworld, September 2004.

Harris, Frank. The Role of Capacity Building in Police Reform. Pristina, Kosovo: Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) Mission in Kosovo, 2005.

International Crisis Group. Reforming Afghanistans Police. Asia Report No. 138, International Crisis Group, August 30, 2007.

Koponen, Harri. What is Community based policing (CBP)? Support to Security Sector Reform (SSSR) Programme, UNDP.

Lewis, William, Edward Marks, and Robert Perito. Enhancing International Civilian Police in Peace Operations. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace (USIP), April 22 2002.

Maende, James Ochieng. Perception of Community Policing: Interrogating Process. Centre for Minority Rights Development (CEMIRIDE), Kenya.

Marshall, Jayne. Zero Tolerance Policing. Information Bulletin, no. 9, The South Australian Office of Crime Statistics & Research (OCSAR), 1999.

Miles, Richard and Promita Sengupta. Building Gender-Responsive Community-Based Policing in Bangladesh. Working paper, Department for International Development (DFID) and German Technical Cooperation (GTZ), Bangladesh.

Mobekk, Eirin. Police Reform in South East Europe: An Analysis of the Stability Pact Self-Assessment Studies. In Defence and Security Sector Governance and Reform in South East Europe Self-Assessment Studies: Regional Perspective, ed. Eden Cole, Timothy Donais and Philipp H. Fluri. Geneva: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF), 2003.

Mobekk, Eirin. Identifying Lessons in United Nations International Policing Missions. Policy Paper No. 9. Geneva: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF), November 2005.

ONeill, William G. Police Reform and Human Rights, A HURIST document, UNDP, New York, 2004.

ONeill, William G. Police Reform in Post-Conflict Countries: What We Know and What We Still Need To Know. New York: International Peace Academy, April 2005.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. OECD DAC Handbook on Security Sector Reform. Paris: OECD, 2007.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Enhancing the Delivery of Justice and Security: Governance, Peace and Security. Paris: OECD, 2007.

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. Guidebook on Democratic Policing. Second Edition. Vienna: OSCE, May 2008.

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. Good Practices in Building Police-Public Partnerships. Vienna: OSCE, May 2008.

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. Supplementary Human Dimension Meeting: The Role of Community Policing in Building Confidence in Minority Communities, Final Report. Vienna: OSCE, 2002.

Osse, Anneke. Understanding Policing: A Resource for Human Rights Activists. Amsterdam: Amnesty International Nederland, 2007.

Peake, Gordon. Policing the peace: Police Reform Experiences in Kosovo, Southern Serbia and Macedonia. London: Saferworld, 25 June 2004.

Pelser, Eric. The Challenges of Community Policing in South Africa. Occasional Paper No 42, Institute for Security Studies, Cape Town, September 1999.

Pelser, Eric, Johann Schnetler and Antoinette Louw. Not Everybody's Business: Community Policing in the SAPS' Priority Areas. Monograph No. 71, March 2002, Institute for Security Studies, Cape Town.

Phillips, Emma and Jennifer Trone. Building Public Confidence in Police Through Civilian Oversight. New York: Vera Institute, 2002.

Piron, Laure-Hélène and Francis Watkins. DFID Human Rights Review: A Review of How DFID has Integrated Human Rights into its Work. London: Overseas Development Institute, July 2004.

Saferworld. Implementing community-based policing in Kenya. London: Saferworld, February 2008.

Saferworld. Policing in Nepal: A Collection of Essays. London: Saferworld, September 2007.

Scheye, E. and A. McLean. Enhancing the delivery of justice and security in fragile states. Paper, OECD/DAC Network on Conflict, Peace and Development Co-operation (CPDC), OECD, Paris, 2006.

Smith, Henty (ed.). Creating Safer Communities: Lessons from South Eastern Europe. London: Saferworld, December 2006.

Smith, Joshua G., Victoria K. Holt, and William J. Durch. From Timor-Leste to Darfur: New Initiatives for Enhancing UN Civilian Policing Capacity. Washington, DC: Stimson Center, August 2007.

South Eastern Europe Clearinghouse for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons. Philosophy and principles of community-based policing. Belgrade: SEESAC, 2003.

Stodiek, Thorsten. The OSCE and the Creation of Multi-Ethnic Police Forces in the Balkans. CORE Working Paper 14, Centre for OSCE Research, Hamburg.

Stromsem, Janice and Joseph Trincellito, Building the Haitian National Police: A Retrospective and Prospective View, Haiti Papers, no.6 (2003).

UN Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) and UN Development Programme (UNDP). Policy Briefing Paper: Gender Sensitive Police Reform in Post Conflict Societies. New York: UNIFEM and UNDP, October 2007.

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UN Official Documents

UN Secretary General. Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations. New York: United Nations, 21 August 2000.

UN Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Resource Centre. Integrated Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Standards. New York: UNDDR, 1 August, 2006.

UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations. Guidelines for Integrating Gender Perspectives in National Police and Law Enforcement Agencies. New York: United Nations, 14 April 2008.

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Center for Problem-Oriented Policing

Community Oriented Police Services

The Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF)

Georgia State University, Department of Criminal Justice

The Global Facilitation Network for Security Sector Reform (GFN-SSR)

Institute for Security Studies (ISS)

International Peace Institute (formerly International Peace Academy)

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), Strategic Police Matters Unit (SPMU)

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), Policing OnLine Information System (POLIS)


South Eastern Europe Clearinghouse for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SEESAC)

UN, Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO)

UN Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Resource Centre (UNDDR)

VERA Institute of Justice

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