Traditional & Informal Justice Systems: Bibliography
Allen, Tim. "Ritual (Ab)use? Problems with Traditional Justice in Northern Uganda." In Courting Conflict? Justice, Peace and the ICC in Africa, edited by Nicholas Waddell and Phil Clark, 47-54. London: Royal African Society, March 2008.
Allen, Tim. Trial Justice: the International Criminal Court and the Lords Resistance Army. London: Zed Books, 2006. (See, in particular, Chapter 6, Justice and Healing, 128-68.)
Allen, Tim. War and Justice in Northern Uganda: An Assessment of the International Criminal Courts Assessment. London: Crisis States Research Centre, February 2005.
Babo-Soares, Dionisio. "Nahe Biti: The Philosophy and Process of Grassroots Reconciliation (and Justice) in East Timor." Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology 5, no. 1 (2004): 15-33.
Baines, Erin K. "The Haunting of Alice: Local Approaches to Justice and Reconciliation in Northern Uganda." International Journal of Transitional Justice 1, no. 1 (2007): 91-114.
Branch, Adam. "International Justice, Local Injustice." Dissent 51, no. 3(2004): 20-28.
Burgess, Patrick. "A New Approach to Restorative Justice: East Timors Community Reconciliation Processes." In Transitional Justice in the Twenty-First Century: Beyond Truth versus Justice, edited by Naomi Roht-Arriaza and Javier Mariezcurrena. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Burgess, Patrick. "Justice and Reconciliation in East Timor: The Relationship between the Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation and the Courts." Criminal Law Forum 15 (2004): 135-58.
Clark, Phil. "Hybridity, Holism, and Traditional Justice: The Case of the Gacaca Courts in Post-Genocide Rwanda." George Washington International Law Review 39, no. 4 (2007): .
Cobban, Helena. Amnesty After Atrocity: Healing Nations After Genocide and War Crimes. Boulder, CO: Paradigm, 2007.
Connolly, Brynna. "Non-State Justice Systems and the State: Proposals for a Recognition Typology." Connecticut Law Review 38, no. 2 (2005): 239-94.
De Sousa Santos, Boaventura, João Carlos Trindade, and Maria Paula Meneses, eds. Law and Justice in a Multicultural Society: The Case of Mozambique. Dakar: Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2006.
Elechi, O. Oko. Doing Justice without the State: The Afikpo (Ehugbo) Nigeria Model. London: Routledge, 2006.
Gibbs, Sara. "Postwar Social Reconstruction in Mozambique: Reframing Childrens Experiences of Trauma and Healing." In Rebuilding Societies after Civil War: Critical Roles for International Assistance, edited by Krisha Kumar, 227-38. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1997.
Hohe, Tanja. "Justice without Judiciary in East Timor." Conflict, Security and Development 3, no. 3 (2003): 335-57.
Honwana, Alcinda. "Children of War: Understanding War and War Cleansing in Mozambique and Angola". In Civilians in War, edited by Simon Chesterman, 123-42. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2001.
Kane, Minneh, J. Oloka-Onyango, and Abdul Tejan-Cole. "Reassessing Customary Law Systems as a Vehicle for Providing Equitable Access to Justice for the Poor." Paper prepared for the World Bank conference, New Frontiers of Social Policy: Development in a Globalizing World, Arusha, Tanzania, December 12-15, 2005.
Karekezi, Urusaro Alice, Alphonse Nshimiyimana, and Beth Mutamba. "Localizing Justice: Gacaca Courts in Post-Genocide Rwanda." In My Neighbor, My Enemy: Justice and Community in the Aftermath of Mass Atrocity, edited by Eric Stover and Harvey M. Weinstein, 69-84. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Kriger, Norma. "Traditional Justice as Socioeconomic Rights." Peace Review 12, no. 1 (2000): 59-65.
Mamdani, Mahmood. Citizen and Subject: Contemporary Africa and the Legacy of Late Colonialism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996.
Merry, Sally Engle. "Legal Pluralism." Law and Society Review 22, no. 5 (1988): 869-92.
Nina, Daniel, and Pamela Jane Schwikkard. "The Soft Vengeance of the People: Popular Justice, Community Justice and Legal Pluralism in South Africa." Journal of Legal Pluralism 36 (1996): 69-87.
Nindorera, Louis-Marie. "Keepers of the Peace: Reviving the Tradition of Bashingantahe in Burundi." Online Journal of Peace and Conflict Resolution 1, no. 4 (1998).
Manboah-Rockson, Joseph. "Chiefs in Post-Colonial Ghana: Exploring Different Elements of the Identity, Inequalities and Conflicts Nexus in the Northern Region." Chieftain 1 (2004): 1-26.
Orentlicher, Diane F. "Settling Accounts Revisited: Reconciling Global Norms with Local Agency." International Journal of Transitional Justice 1, no. 1 (2007): 10-22.
Oomen, Barbara. Chiefs in South Africa: Law, Power and Culture in the Post-Apartheid Era. New York: Palgrave, 2005.
Pouligny, Beatrice, Simon Chesterman, and Albrecht Schnabel. After Mass Crime: Rebuilding States and Communities. Tokyo: United Nations University Press, 2007.
Quinn, Joanna R. "The Role of Informal Mechanisms in Transitional Justice." Paper prepared for presentation on the panel, "Transitional Justice: Local and International Dimensions," at the Canadian Political Science Association Annual Meeting, London, Canada, 2-5 June 2005.
Quinn, Joanna. R. "Social Reconstruction in Uganda: The Role of Customary Mechanisms in Transitional Justice." Human Rights Review 8, no. 4 (2007): 389-407.
Theidon, Kimberly. "The Micropolitics of Reconciliation in Postwar Peru." Journal of Conflict Resolution 50, no. 3 (2006): 433-57.
Uvin, Peter, and Charles Mironko. "Western and Local Approaches to Justice in Rwanda." Global Governance 9, no. 2 (2003): 219-31.
Van der Merwe, Hugo. "National and Community Reconciliation: Competing Agendas in the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission." In Burying the Past: Making Peace and Doing Justice After Civil Conflict, edited by Nigel Biggar, 101-24. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2003.
Waldorf, Lars. "Mass Justice for Mass Atrocity: Rethinking Local Justice as Transitional Justice." Temple Law Review 79, no. 1 (2006): 1-87.
Walker, Polly O. "Decolonizing Conflict Resolution: Addressing the Ontological Violence of Westernization." American Indian Quarterly 28, no. 3/4 (2004): 527-49.
West, Harry G. "Creative Destruction and Sorcery of Construction: Power, Hope, and Suspicion in Post-war Mozambique." Cahier dEtudes Africaines 37, no. 3 (1997): 675-98.
Zartmann, William I., ed. Traditional Cures of Modern Conflicts: African Conflict Medicine." Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2000.
[Back to Top] Reconciliation and Justice: Mato Oput and the Amnesty Act." ACCORD 11 (2002).
Belo Ximenes, Fausto. The Unique Contribution of the Community-Based Reconciliation Process in East Timor. Dili: Judicial System Monitoring Programme, May 28, 2004.
Boege, Volker. Traditional Approaches to Conflict Transformation: Potentials and Limits. Berlin: Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management, July 2006.
Chirayath, Leila, Caroline Sage, and Michael Woolcock. "Customary Law and Policy Reform: Engaging with the Plurality of Justice Systems." Prepared as a background paper for the World Development Report 2006: Equity and Development, July 2005.
Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor. Chega! The Report of the Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation. Dili: Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation, 2005.
Department for International Development (DFID). Non-State Justice and Security Systems: A Guidance Note. Lodon: DFID, March 2004.
Dexter, Tracy, and Philippe Ntahombaye. The Role of Informal Justice Systems in Fostering the Rule of Law in Post-Conflict Situations: The Case of Burundi. Geneva: Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue, July 2005.
Faundez, Julio. "Non-State Justice Systems in Latin America: Case Studies: Peru and Colombia." Paper prepared for the United Kingdom Department for International Development workshop, "Working with Non-State Justice Systems," London, United Kingdom, March 6-7, 2003.
Forsyth, Miranda. "How to 'Do' Legal Pluralism." Social Science Research Network Working Paper, June 2007.
Ghai, Yash. "In Traditional Societies, the Jury is Out on Legal Reform." UNESCO Courier, November 1, 1999.
Global Facilitation Network for Security Sector Reform (GFNSSR). "Supporting State and Non-State Provision of Security and Justice."
Golub, Stephen. "Non-State Justice Systems in Bangladesh and the Philippines." Paper prepared for the United Kingdom Department for International Development, January 2003.
Gómez G., Saqutiw Jesús (Coordinador). Del monismo al pluralismo jurídico en Guatemala: Compendio sobre pautas de coordinación entre Derecho Maya y Derecho Estatal. Guatemala: Conferencia Nacional de Ministros de la Espiritualidad Maya Oxlajuj Ajpop, 2003.
Harvey, Barbara. "Breaking Eggs/Rebuilding Societies: Traditional Justice as a Tool for Transitional Justice in Northern Uganda." Paper prepared for Youth Symposium on Conflict, Poverty, and International Interventions, Montreal, Canada, March 21, x2007.
Hohe, Tanja, and Rod Nixon. "Reconciling Justice: Traditional Law and State Judiciary in East Timor." Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, January 2003.
Honwana, Alcinda. "Sealing the Past, Facing the Future: Trauma Healing in Rural Mozambique." ACCORD 3 (1998).
Hovil, Lucy, and Joanna R. Quinn. Peace First, Justice Later: Traditional Justice in Northern Uganda. Kampala: Refugee Law Project, July 2005.
Huyse, Luc, and Mark Salter, eds. Reconciliation and Traditional Justice after Violent Conflict: Learning from African Experiences. Stockholm: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, 2008.
Igreja, Victor, and Beatrice Dias-Lambranca. "Restorative Justice and the Role of Magamba Spirits in Post-Civil War Gorongosa, Central Mozambique." In Reconciliation and Traditional Justice after Violent Conflict: Learning from African Experiences, edited by Luc Huyse and Mark Salter, 61-83. Stockholm: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, 2008.
Ingelaere, Bert. "The Gacaca Courts in Rwanda." In Reconciliation and Traditional Justice after Violent Conflict: Learning from African Experiences, edited by Luc Huyse and Mark Salter, 25-59. Stockholm: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, 2008.
Liu Institute for Global Issues. Roco Wat Acoli: Traditional Approaches to Justice and Reintegration. Vancouver: Liu Institute for Global Issues, September 2005.
Kane, Minneh, J. Oloka-Onyango, and Abdul Tejan-Cole. "Reassessing Customary Law Systems as a Vehicle for Providing Equitable Access to Justice for the Poor." Paper prepared for the World Bank conference, "New Frontiers for Social Policy: Development in a Globalizing World," Arusha, Tanzania, December 12-15, 2005.
Kimathi, Leah Wambura. "Non-State Institutions as a Basis for State Reconstruction: The Case of Justice Systems in Africa." Paper prepared for the Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africas 11th General Assembly, Maputo, Mozambique, December 6-10, 2005.
Latigo, James Ojera. "Northern Uganda: Tradition-Based Practices in the Acholi Region." In Reconciliation and Traditional Justice after Violent Conflict: Learning from African Experiences, edited by Luc Huyse and Mark Salter, 85-102. Stockholm: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, 2008.
Le Sage, Andre. Stateless Justice In Somalia: Formal and Informal Rule of Law Initiatives. Geneva: Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue, July 2005.
Mearns, David. Looking Both Ways: Models for Justice in East Timor. Sydney: Australian Legal Resources International, 2002.
Naniwe-Kaburahe, Assumpta. "The Institution of Bashingantahe in Burundi." In Traditional Justice and Reconciliation after Violent Conflict: Learning from African Experiences, edited by Luc Huyse and Mark Salter, 147-79. Stockholm: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, 2008.
Nyamu-Musembi, Celestine. Review of Experience in Engaging with "Non-State" Justice Systems in East Africa. London: Department for International Development, February 2003.
Ocen, Julius. "Can Traditional Rituals Bring Justice to Northern Uganda?" London: Institute for War and Peace Reporting, July 26, 2007.
Okello, Moses Chrispus. "The False Polarisation of Peace and Justice in Uganda." Paper prepared for the International Conference on Peace and Justice, Nuremberg, Germany, June 25-27, 2007.
Penal Reform International (PRI). Access to Justice in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Role of Traditional and Informal Justice Systems. London: PRI, 2000.
Pham, Phuong, Patrick Vinck, Marieke Wierda, Eric Stover, and Adrian di Giovanni. "Forgotten Voices: A Population-Based Survey of Attitudes about Peace and Justice in Northern Uganda." New York: International Center for Transitional Justice/Human Rights Center, July 2005.
Piers, Pigou. The Community Reconciliation Process of the Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation. Dili: United Nations Development Programme Timor-Leste, April 2005.
Shaw, Rosalind. Rethinking Truth and Reconciliation Commissions: Lessons from Sierra Leone. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, February 2005.
Swaine, Aisling. Traditional Justice and Gender Based Violence. New York: International Rescue Committee, August 2003.
South Africa Law Commission. Report on Traditional Courts and the Judicial Function of Traditional Leaders. Project 90, Customary Law, 21 January 2003.
Thakur, Ramesh. "East Timor: When Peace and Justice Collide." International Herald Tribune, August 31, 2005.
Thorne, Kristina. Rule of Law through Imperfect Bodies? The Informal Justice Systems of Burundi and Somalia. Geneva: Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue, 2005.
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). "Justice, Security, and Human Rights." UNDP background paper for the Bergen Seminar Series, "Governance in Post-Conflict Situations," Bergen, Norway, May 2004.
United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Afghanistan Rule of Law Project. Field Study of Informal and Customary Justice in Afghanistan and Recommendations on Improving Access to Justice and Relations between Formal Courts and Informal Bodies. Washington, DC: USAID, 2005.
Wojkowska, Ewa.Doing Justice: How Informal Justice Systems Can Contribute.Geneva: United Nations Development Programme Oslo Governance Centre, December 2006.
[Back to Top] Making Peace Our Own: Victims' Perceptions of Accountability, Reconciliation and Transitional Justice in Northern Uganda. New York: United Nations, 2007.
"Report of the Secretary-General on the Rule of Law and Transitional Justice in Conflict and Post-Conflict Societies." UN Doc. S/2004/616, August 23, 2004.
United Nations General Assembly. "United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples." UN Doc. A/Res/61/295, 2 October 2007.
[Back to Top] Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation, Timor-Leste
Hope Survivors Foundation (formerly Ibuka)
Judicial System Monitoring Programme
National Service of Gacaca Jurisdictions, Rwanda
National Unity and Reconciliation Commission, Rwanda
United States Institute of Peace: "The Justice Dilemma in Uganda"