Private Sector Development: Bibliography

Academic Resources

Amsden, Alice. Make Jobs with Aid. In Advice to President Obama. Cambridge, MIT Center for International Studies, 2009.

Amsden, Alice. The Rise of the Rest: Challenges to the West from Late-Industrializing Economies. New York, Oxford University Press, 2001.

Arrighi, Giovanni. The African Crisis World Systemic and Regional Aspects. New Left Review, Volume 15, May/June 2002: 5-36.

Barbieri, Katherine. 2005. The Liberal Illusion: Does Trade Promote Peace?.  Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Barclay, Anthony. The Political Economy of Brain Drain at Institutions of Higher Learning in Conflict Countries: Case of the University of Liberia. African Issues, Vol. 30, No. 1. 2002: 42-46.

Bruton, H.J. "A Reconsideration of Import Substitution," Journal of Economic Literature 36 (1998), 903-936.

Collier, Paul. The Market for War. Foreign Policy no. 136 (May/June 2003): 38-45.

Collier, Paul. Post-conflict Recovery: How Should Policies Be Distinctive? Oxford: Centre for the Study of African Economies, Oxford University, May 2007,

Coslovsky, Salo. Stitching it Together: How Prosecutors Produce Compliance and Promote Economic Growth in Brazil. Manuscript, MIT, 2009.

Duffield, Mark. Post-modern conflict: Warlords, Post-adjustment States and Private Protection. Civil Wars, Vol 1, No 1, (Spring 1998): 65-112.

Ebo, Adedeji . Non-state actors, peacebuilding and security governance in West Africa: beyond commercialization. Journal of Peacebuilding and Development, 3, no 2 (2007), 53-54.

Ferguson, James. Global Shadows: Africa in the Neoliberal World Order. Durham: Duke University Press, 2006.

Ferguson, James. Seeing Like an Oil Company: Space, Security, and Global Capital in Neoliberal Africa. American Anthropologist, Vol. 107, No. 3 (Sept 2005): 377-382.

Gerson, Allan. "Peace-building: The Private Sector's Role." The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 95 No. 102 (2001): 102-119.

Haggard, Stephen, Andrew MacIntyre, and Lydia Tiede. The Rule of Law and Economic Development. American Political Science Review 11 2008.

Hayman, Gavin and Corene Crossin. Revenue Transparency and the Publish What You Pay Campaign. In Profiting from Peace: Managing the Resource Dimensions of Civil War. Edited by Karen Ballentine and Heiko Nitzschke. Boulder: Lynne Reinner Publishers, Inc., 2005).

Hirshleifer, Jack, The Paradox of Power, Economics and Politics 3 (1991): 177-200, and Caruso, Raul, Butter, Guns and Ice-Cream: Policy Implications of Theoretical Conflict Economics, MIT International Review (2009).

Hirschman, A. O. 1981. The Rise and Decline of Development Economics. In Essays in Trespassing: Economics to Politics and Beyond. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Jha, Saumitra. Trade, Institutions and Religious Tolerance: Evidence from India, Manuscript (2007).

Imai, Kosuke, and Jeremy M. Weinstein, Measuring the Economic Impact of Civil War, CID Working Paper No. 51, Harvard Center for International Development, 2000.

Kant, Immanuel, Pauline Kleingeld, et. al., Toward Perpetual Peace and Other Writings on Politics, Peace, and History. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 2006, 229.

Kanamori, Toshiki and Zhijun Zhao. The Growing Role of Private Sector. Beijing: Asian Development  Bank Institute, October 2004.

Keen, David. Incentives and Disincentives for Violence. In Mats Berdal and David M. Malone (eds.), 19-42. Greed and Grievance: Economic Agendas in Civil Wars. London: Lynne Rienner, 2000.

Kim, Annette. Learning to be Capitalists: Entrepreneurs in Vietnams Transition Economy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Koser, Khalid. African Diasporas and Reconstruction. In Diasporas in Conflict: Peace-makers or Peace-wreckers? Edited by Hazel Smith and Paul Stares. Tokyo: United Nations University Press, 2007: 239-252.

Krugman, Paul, "Increasing Returns and Economic Geography," The Journal of Political Economy 99, no. 3 (1991).

Lam, Amanda Sunassee. Aid for Trade and the European Development Fund. In Aid for Trade and Development. Edited by Hugo Cameron and Dominique Njinkeu. Cambridge University Press 2007.

Locke, Richard. Note on Corporate Citizenship in a Global Economy, MIT Department of Political Science.

Locke, Richard. Opportunities in Building More Sustainable Supply Chains. Presentation at the Sloan School of Management, MIT, Cambridge, MA, 19 September 2008.

McDougal, Topher L. The Liberian State of Emergency: What do Civil War and State-Led Industrialization Have in Common? Working Paper, Working Group on Violent Conflict & Economic Institutions, MIT 2008.

McDougal, Topher L. Survival Strategies of Production Firms in Civil War: The Case of Liberia. Conference paper, London School of Economics, 2008.

Mutume, Gumisai. Reversing Africas Brain Drain: New Initiatives Tap Skills of African Expatriates. Africa Recovery Vol 17, No. 2. July 2003.

Nassery, Homira G. Reverse Brain Drain: Afghan-American Diaspora in Post-Conflict Peacebuilding and Reconstruction, manuscript (Kabul: American International School of Kabul, 2003), and AnaLee Saxenian, The New Argonauts: Regional Advantage in a Global Economy (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2006).

Paris, Roland. At Wars End: Building Peace After Civil Conflict. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Prebisch, Raul. Commercial Policy in the Underdeveloped Countries, American Economic Review 49 (1959): 257-269.

Putnam, Robert D. E Pluribus Unum: Diversity and Community in the Twenty-first Century, Scandinavian Political Studies, 30 no. 2 (2007), 137-174.

Rajagopal, Balakrishnan. Invoking the Rule of Law in Post-Conflict Rebuilding: A Critical Examination, William and Mary Law Review 49 (2008): 1345-1374.

Singer, P.W. Corporate Warriors: The Rise of the Privatized Military Industry. Cornell University Press, 2004.

Standing, Guy. The ILO: An Agency for Globalization? Development and Change. 39 no. 3, 2008.

Starr, Paul. The Meaning of Privatization, Yale Law and Policy Review 6 (1988).

Stiglitz, Joseph E., Jose Antonio Ocampo, et. al., Stability with Growth: Macroeconomics, Liberalization and Development. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006, 221.

Tilly, Charles. Coercion, Capital, and European States. Cambridge: Basil Blackwell, 1992.

Weinstein, Jeremy. Autonomous Recovery and International Intervention in Comparative Perspective. Working Paper No. 57, Stanford: Stanford University Center for Global Development, 2005.

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News and Reports

The Economist. In the Shadows: The Informal Economy is Neither Small nor Benign. The Economist, 18 June 2004.

Omura, Yukiko. Take Cover to Reduce Risk, Financial Times: Business. January 5, 2005.

Reuters. New Abu Ghraib Torture Lawsuits Target Military Contractors in U.S. Courts, According? Reuters,30 June 2008.

United Nations Office at Geneva. News and Media: Human Rights Council Holds Interactive Dialogue on Right to Education, Extreme Poverty and Transnational Corporations. UNOG, June 3, 2008.

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Policy Analysis and Practitioner Documents

Altenbug, Tilman. Donor approaches to supporting pro-poor value chains. Report prepared for the Donor Committee for Enterprise Development Working Group on Linkages and Value Chains. Berlin: German Development Institute, July 2006.

Anderson, Mary B. and Luc Zandvliet. Corporate Options for Breaking Cycles of Conflict. Cambridge: Collaborative for Development Action, May 2001.

Asian Development Bank Institute. The Growing Role of Private Sector: 3.1 Concept of the Private Sector. ADBI.

Asian Development Bank, Philippine Government and World Trade Organization. Mobilizing Aid for Trade: Focus Asia and the Pacific. Conference Proceedings by Asian Development Bank, The Philippine Government and the World Trade Organization, Manila, Philippines, 19-20 September 2007.

Aronson, Susan. Ruggie Tells States to Mind Their Businesses. Policy Innovations: A Publication of the Carnegie Council. March 5, 2007.

AusAid. Growing Business. Focus, June-August 2005.

Banfield, Jessica, Virginia Haufler and Damian Lilly. Transnational Corporations in Conflict Prone Zones: Public Policy Responses and a Framework for Action. London: International Alert, September 2003.

Becker, Sabine. Private Sector Development in Reintegration and Reconstruction Programs. Berlin: Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), March 2006.

Bennett, Juliette. Conflict Prevention and Revenue-Sharing Regimes. Paper prepared for the United Nations Global Compact Policy Dialogue: Business in Zones of Conflict, May 2002.

Berger, Leah. Private Sector Risk Analysis and Conflict Impact Assessment: Measuring the Reverse Flow of Risk. Carleton University: The Norman Paterson School of International Affairs, Country Indicators for Foreign Policy (CIFP) Project, December 2002.

Bray, John. International Companies and Post-Conflict Reconstruction: Cross-Sectoral Comparisons. World Bank Social Development Papers: Conflict and Reconstruction, No. 22, February 2005.

Brecke, Peter. Risk Assessment Models and Early Warning Systems. Arbietsgruppe: Internationale Politik, March 2000.

Brown, Scott. Fragile States: Institution Building and the Private Sector, Notes for Presentation at the Conference on Improving Governance and Fighting Corruption: New Frontiers in Public-Private Partnerships, March 15, 2007.

Campbell, Ashley. The Private Sector and Conflict Prevention Mainstreaming: Risk Analysis and Conflict Impact Assessment Tools for Multinational Corporations. Carleton University: The Norman Paterson School of International Affairs, Country Indicators for Foreign Policy (CIFP) Project, May 2002.

Carbonnier, Gilles. Conflict, Postwar Rebuilding and the Economy: A Critical Review of the Literature. WSP Occasional Paper No. 2. Geneva: Interpeace, March 1998.

Carlson, Cindy et al. Improving the delivery of health and education services in difficult environments: lessons from case studies. London: United Kingdom Department for International Development (DfID) Health Systems Resource Centre, 2005.

Cairo Declaration. Cairo: Africa-Europe Summit under the Aegis of the OAU and the EU, SN106/4/00 REV 4, April 3-4, 2000.

Carrington, William J. and Enrica Detragiache. How Big is the Brain Drain? WP/98/102. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund, July 1998.

Chemonics. Private Sector Development. Washington, D.C.: Chemonics, 2008.

Cheru, Fantu. Building and Supporting PRSPs in Africa: What Has Worked Well So Far? What Needs Changing? Third World Quarterly, Vol 27, No 2, 2006.

Collaborative Learning Projects. Issue Paper: Defining and Measuring Successful Relations with Communities: Developing Indicators of Impact. Cambridge: Collaborative Learning Projects, Corporate Engagement Project, July 2003.

Collaborative Learning Projects. Issue Paper: The Role of Business in Conflict Resolution and Peace Building. Cambridge: Collaborative Learning Projects, Corporate Engagement Project, February 2003.

Committee on Human Development and Civil Society. Countries Emerging from Conflict: Lessons on Partnership in Post-conflict Reconstruction, Rehabilitation and Reintegration. Addis Adaba, Ethiopia: UNECA, May 26-7, 2003.

Culper, Roy. Private Foreign Investment: Part of the Problem or Part of the Solution? in the Canadian Development Report. Canada: North South Institute, 2004, 2.

DCED. Supporting Business Environment Reforms: Practical Guidance for Development Agencies. Cambridge, UK: Donor Committee for Enterprise Development, August 2008.

Development Alternatives Inc, Practices: Private Sector Development, Bethesda, Maryland: DAI, 2008.

DevTech Systems. Applying the Science of Economics to Development. Arlington, Virginia: DevTech, 2007.

Doyle, Karen. Microfinance in the Wake of Conflict: Challenges and Opportunities. Washington DC: USAID, the SEEP Network, July 1998.

DTI. Liberalisation and Globalisation: Maximising the Benefits of International Trade and Investment. DTI Economic Papers No. 10, July 2004.

Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative. EITI Summary. EITI, 2008.

Fair Trade Labeling Organizations International, et. al. Fair Trade Definition and Principles. Brussels: Fair Trade Advocacy Office, December 2001.

Fox, James W., Kelly A. Batts and Katie Croake. Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers: Review of Private Sector Participation. Washington, D.C.: United States Agency for International Development, Development Information Services, October 31, 2003.

Fry, Maxwell J. Foreign Direct Investment in a Macroeconomic Framework: Finance, Efficiency, Incentives, and Distortions. WPS 1141. World Bank Policy Research Working Papers, 1993.

Gibson, Alan. The Development of Markets for Business Development Services: Where we are and how to go further. Paper presented at the International ILO Conference. Hanoi, Vietnam, July 1999.

Goovaerts, Piet, Martin Gasser and Aliza Belman Inbal. Demand Driven Approaches to Livelihood Support in Post-war Contexts: A Joint ILO-World Bank Study. Paper number 29. The World Bank and International Labour Office, October 2005.

Gwartney, James and Robert Lawson. Economic Freedom of the World: 2008 Annual Report. (Canada: Fraser Institute, 2008).

Heintz, James. Globalization, Economic Policy and Employment: Poverty and Gender Implication. International Labor Organization Employment Strategy Papers. Geneva: International Labor Organization, March 2006.

HLF on Health MDGs. Health Service Delivery in Post-Conflict States. Paris: High Level Forum on Health MDGs, 14-15 November 2005.

Humphreys, Macartan. Economics and Violent Conflict, Harvard Program on Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research. 2003.

Independent Evaluation Office (IEO), The IMFs Approach to Capital Account Liberalization, September 15, 2004.

International Alert. Addressing the Economic Dimensions of Peacebuilding Through Trade and Support to Private Enterprise. Conflict Prevention Partnership, September 2006.

International Alert. Conflict-Sensitive Business Practice: Guidance for Extractive Industries. March 2005.

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the World Bank. World Development Report 2005: A Better Investment Climate for Everyone. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

International Institute for Sustainable Development. Promoting Conflict-Sensitive Business: Fostering Responsible Business in Fragile States, 2005.

International Labor Organization. International Programme on Crisis Response and Reconstruction. Geneva: ILO, 2008.

International Labor Organization. Job Creation in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Recommendation. Geneva: ILO, 1998.

International Labour Conference, The Promotion of Sustainable Enterprises. Geneva: ILO, 2007.

International Monetary Fund. Foreign Direct Investment in Emerging Market Countries. IMF Report of the Working Group of the Capital Markets Consultative Group, September 2003.

Jensen, Michael Friis. Human Development Report 2005: Capacity Building for Pro-Poor Trade: Learning from the Limitations in Current Models. Denmark: Danish Institute for International Studies, 22 December 2004.

Joshi, Anuradha, Progressive Bureaucracy: An Oxymoron? The Case of Joint Forest Management in India. Network paper 24a, Overseas Development Institute, London, UK, 1999.

Kanagaretnam Pan, and Susan Brown. Business, Conflict, and Peacebuilding: An Operational Framework. Canadian Peacekeeping Press, August 2005.

Killick, Nick, VS Srikantha and Canan Gündüz. The Role of Local Business in Peacebuilding. Berlin: Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management, February 2005.

Kant, Immanuel, Pauline Kleingeld, et. al. Toward Perpetual Peace and Other Writings on Politics, Peace, and History. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 2006.

Kimberley Process. Background. Kimberley Process.

Lawton, Dale. Corporate Social Responsibility and Peacebuilding: A Case for Action in Israel and the Palestinian Territories. White paper, Rockland, Maine: Institute for Global Ethics.

Lilly, Damian. The privatization of security and peacebuilding: a framework for action. International Alert, September 2000.

MacDonald, M.H. Private Sector Development in Reintegration and Reconstruction Programmes. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), March 2006.

Mac Sweeney, Naoise. Private Sector Development in Post-Conflict Countries: A Review of Current Literature and Practice. Cambridge, UK: The Donor Committee for Enterprise Development, August 2008.

Manalo, Marlyn S. Microfinance Institutions Response in Conflict Environments. World Bank Africa Region Working Paper, No. 54, June 2003.

Martens, Jens. The Precarious State of Public Finance, Terre des Hommes, Global Policy Forum Europe, DGB Bildungswerk, January 2007.

Mills, Rob and Qimiao Fan. The Investment Climate in Post-conflict Situations. Washington, D.C.: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, The World Bank, 2006.

Minniti, Maria, Pia Arenius, and Nan Langowitz. 2004 Report on Women and Entrepreneurship. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. Babson Park, Massachusetts: Babson College Center for Womens Leadership, 2004.

Nagarajan, Geetha. Microfinance in Post-Conflict Countries: What Makes it Tick? Epargne Sans Frontiere, Vol. 59-60. July-October 2000.

Nelson, Jane. The Business of Peace. International Alert, Council on Economic Priorities, and The Prince of Wales Business Leaders Forum, 2000.

Nelson, Jane and Simon Zadek, Partnership Alchemy: New Social Partnerships in Europe. Copenhagen: The Copenhagen Centre, 2006, 18.

Nenova, Tatiana. Private Sector Response to the Absence of Gvernment Institutions in Somalia. Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 2004.

Niethammer, Carment, Mark Blackden, and Henriette Von Kaltenborn-Stachau. Creating Opportunities for Women Entrepreneurs in Conflict-Affected Countries. New York: International Finance Corporation, April 2008.

Ody, Anthony J. Beyond Microfinance: Getting Capital to Small and Medium Enterprises to Fuel Faster Development. Brookings Policy Brief Series, No. 159. The Brookings Institute, March 2007.

Organization of American States. American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man. OAS, Adopted 1948.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Glossary of Statistical Terms: Public-Private Partnerships. In Manual on Fiscal Transparency. Washington DC: IMF, 2007.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Multinational Enterprises in Situations of Violent Conflict and Widespread Human Rights Abuses. Working Papers on International Investment, Number 2002/1, May 2002.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. OECD Benchmark Definition of Foreign Direct Investment. Paris: OECD, 1996.

Overseas Development Institute. Aid for Trade: One Year On. ODI Background Briefing, 2007.

Publish What You Pay. Welcome to the Publish What You Pay Website. Publish What You Pay.

Rose, Pauline and Martin Greeley. Education in Fragile States: Capturing Lessons and Identifying Good Practice. Brighton: Centre for International Education, Prepared for the DAC Fragile States Group Service Delivery Workstream, Sub-team for Education Services, May 2006.

Schulpen, Lau, and Peter Gibbon, Private Sector Development: Policies, Practices and Problems. Copenhagen: Centre for International Development, August 27, 2001.

Schwartz, Jordan, Shelly Hahn and Ian Bannon. The Private Sectors Role in the Provision of Infrastructure in Post-conflict Countries: Patterns and Policy Options. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction, August 2004: 16.

Shankleman, Jill. The Role of Business in Peace Making: A Case Study of the Oil Industry. Fellow Project Report. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace, July 8, 2004.

Shearer, David. Outsourcing War.  Foreign Policy (Fall 1998): 68-81.

Shinn, David H. Reversing the Brain Drain in Ethiopia. Delivered to the Ethiopian North American Health Professionals Association, Alexandria, Virginia, November 23, 2002,

Singer, P.W. Corporate Warriors: The Rise of the Privatized Military Industry and Its Ramifications for International Security.  International Security vol. 26, no. 3 (Winter 2001/02): 186-220.

Switzer, Jason and Halina Ward. Enabling Corporate Investment in Peace: An Assessment of Voluntary Initiatives Addressing Business and Violent Conflict, and a Framework for Policy Decision-making. Discussion paper prepared by the International Institute for Sustainable Development. Canada: Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT), February 2004.

Switzer, Jason. Security Link: The Private Sector. News Briefing, International Institute for Sustainable Development, 2005.

Sye, Claudia. United Nations Office for Project Servces (UNOPS) and the Deutsche Gesellschaft Fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) - What do they contribute to development Cooperation? Hamburg: University of Hamburg, Disseration, March 2006.

Tendler, Judith. The Rule of Law, Economic Development, and the Public Sector in Brazil: Lessons for Territorial Development. Paper for a meeting at Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, DC, 29-30 October, 2007.

Thadani, Veena. Globalization and Its Contradictions: Democracy and Development in the Sub-Continent. Paper presented at the British International Studies Conference. New York: New York University, December 2006.

Transparency International. Enhancing Standards in the Private Sector. 2008.

Trujillo, Lourdes, Noelia Martín, Anotonio Estache and Javier Campos. Macroeconomic Effects of Private Sector Participation in Latin Americas Infrastructure. WPS 2906. Washington, D.C.: World Bank Institute, Policy Research Working Paper, October 2002.

United Nations Committee on Trade and Development. Multinational Corporations (MNCs) in Least Developed Countries (LDCs) 2002.

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Issue Paper for the Session on Partnerships and Civil Society: Roles and Capabilities in Conflict Prevention and Peace building. New York: UNDESA, 15 November 2004.

United Nations Development Programme. Development and Transition. Kosovo: UNDP, 2007.

United Nations Development Programme. "Fast Facts: UNDP and the Private Sector." New York City: UNDP, May 2008.

United Nations Development Programme. Governance for sustainable human development: Glossary of key terms. New York: UNDP, 2008.

United Nations Global Compact. Revenue-Sharing Regimes.

United Nations Industrial Development Organization. About UNIDO. UNIDO.

United Nations Industrial Development Organization. Private Sector Development Branch Overview. UNIDO.

United Nations Office at Geneva. News and Media: Human Rights Council Holds Interactive Dialogue on Right to Education, Extreme Poverty and Transnational Corporations. UNOG, June 3, 2008.

United States Agency for International Development. A Guide to Economic Growth in Post-Conflict Countries. Washington, DC: Economic Growth Office, Bureau for Economic Growth, Agriculture and Trade, USAID, October 2007.

United States Agency for International Development. Microfinance Following Conflict: Technical Brief, No.1. Microenterprise Best Practices, 2000.

Villacis Paredes, Maria de los Angeles. Supplementary Guide to Deciding Whether to do Business in States with Bad Governments. Copenhagen: Danish Centre for Human Rights, 2000.

Williams, Alison. Post Conflict Microfinance Research Summary. 2002.

Witte, Jan Martin and Wolfgang Reinicke. Business Unusual: Facilitating United Nations Reform through Partnerships. United Nations Global Compact Office, 2005.

World Bank. Business Partners for Development: Tri-sector Results and Recommendations: 1998-2001. Washington DC: World Bank, 2002.

World Bank. Fragile and Conflict-Affected Countries. Washington D.C.: World Bank, 2008.

World Trade Organization. Trade and Foreign Direct Investment. October 9, 1996.

Ye, Min. Comparative Kantian Peace Theory: Economic Interdependence and International Conflict at a Group Level of Analysis. Boston: American Political Science Association, 2002.

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UN Official Documents

Report of the Secretary General, A/50/60 - S/1995/1, Position Paper of the Secretary-General on the Occasion of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the United Nations Supplement to an Agenda for Peace, January 1995.

Ruggie, John. "Clarifying the Concepts of 'Sphere of influence' and 'Complicity:' Report of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on the Issue of Human Rights and Transnational Corporations and other Business Enterprises." Human Rights Council, A/HRC/8/16, May 15, 2008, 4.

Ruggie, John. Protect, Respect and Remedy: A Framework for Business and Human Rights. Report of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on the issue of human rights and transnational corporations and other business enterprises, Human Rights Council, A/HRC/8/5, April 7, 2008.

United Nations. Universal Declaration of Human Rights. UNGA, Adopted December 1948.

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Department for International Development (DFID). Glossary and Acronyms.

Global Policy Forum

Global Witness

Initiative for Peacebuilding

International Crisis Group

International Institute for Sustainable Development.

International Monetary Fund

Publish What You Pay

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Glossary of Statistical Terms, Last updated 20 November 2001.

UNDP. Governance for Sustainable Human Development: Glossary of Key Terms.

World Bank. Beyond Economic Growth Student Book.

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