Memorialization, Historiography & History Education: Bibliography: Historiography & History Education

Academic resources

Ackermann, Alice. Reconciliation as a Peacebuilding Process in Postwar Europe: The Franco-German Case. Peace & Change 19, no. 3 (July 1994): 229-250.

Barkan, Elazar. Engaging History: Managing Conflict and Reconciliation. History Workshop Journal 59 (Spring 2005): 229-236.

Barkan, Elazar. The Guilt of Nations: Restitution and Negotiating Historical Injustices. New York: Norton, 2000.

Bar-Tal, Daniel. Collective Memory of Physical Violence: its Contribution to the Culture of Violence. In The Role of Memory in Ethnic Conflict, edited by Ed Cairns and Micheal D. Roe, 77-93. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.

Cole, Elizabeth, ed. Teaching the Violent Past: History Education and Reconciliation. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007.

Cole, Elizabeth A. "Transitional Justice and the Reform of History Education." International Journal of Transitional Justice 1, no. 1 (2007): 115-137.

Gardner Feldman, Lily. The Principle and Practice of Reconciliation in German Foreign Policy: Relations with France, Israel, Poland, and the Czech Republic. International Affairs 75, no. 2 (1999): 333-356.

Gillis, John R. Commemorations: The Politics of National Identity. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994.

Hein, Laura and Mark Selden. Censoring History: Citizenship and Memory in Japan, Germany, and the United States.  Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 2000.

Hoepken, Wolfgang. War, Memory, and Education in a Fragmented Society: The Case of Yugoslavia. East European Politics and Societies 13, no. 1 (Winter 1999): 190-227.

Hoffman, Eva. The Balm of Recognition: Rectifying Wrong through the Generations. In Human Rights, Human Wrongs, edited by Nicholas Owen. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Jelin, Elizabeth. State Repression and the Labors of Memory. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2003.

Jelin, Elizabeth. State repression and the struggles for memory. openDemocracy, 11/09/06.

LaCapra, Dominick. History and Memory after Auschwitz.Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1998.

Le Goff, Jacques. History and Memory. New York: Columbia University Press, 1992.

Maier, Charles S. Doing History, Doing Justice: The Narrative of the Historian and of the Truth Commission. In Truth v. Justice: The Morality of Truth Commissions, edited by Robert I. Rotberg and Dennis Thompson, 261-278. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2000.

Osiel, Mark. Mass Atrocity, Collective Memory, and the Law. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1997.

Pingel, Falk. Can Truth Be Negotiated? History Textbook Revision as a Means to Reconciliation. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 617 (May 2008): 181-198.

Pouligny, Beatrice, Simon Chesterman, and Albrecht Schnabel. After Mass Crime: Rebuilding States and Communities. Tokyo, New York, and Paris: United Nations University Press, 2007.

Schudson, Michael. Dynamics of Distortion in Collective Memory. In Memory Distortion: How Minds, Brains, and Societies Reconstruct the Past, edited by Daniel L. Schacter. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995.

Stover, Eric and Harvey M. Weinstein, eds. My Neighbor, My Enemy: Justice and Community in the Aftermath of Mass Atrocity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. 

Weinstein, Harvey M., Sarah Warshauer Freedman, and Holly Hughson. School Voices: Challenges Facing Education Systems after Identity-Based Conflicts. Education, Citizenship and Social Justice 2, no. 1 (March 2007): 41-71.

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Policy analysis and practitioner documents

Bush, Kenneth D. and Diane Saltarelli. The Two Faces of Ethnic Conflict: Towards a Peacebuilding Education for Children. Florence, Italy: UNICEF Innocenti Research Center, 2000.

Cole, Elizabeth A. and Judy Barsalou. "Unite or Divide? The Challenges of Teaching History in Societies Emerging from Violent Conflict." Washington, DC: US Institute of Peace (USIP), June 2006.

Hoepken, Wolfgang. History Textbooks and Reconciliation: Preconditions and Experiences in a Comparative Perspective. World Bank conference, November 11, Washington, D.C.

Smith, Alan, and Tony Vaux. Education, Conflict and International Development. London: UK Department for International Development (DFID), 2003.

Tawil, Sobhi and Alexandra Harley. Education and Identity-based Conflict: Assessing curriculum policy for social and civic reconstruction. In Education, Conflict and Social Cohesion, edited by Sobhi Tawil and Alexandra Harley. Geneva: UNESCO, International Bureau of Education, 2004.

Tawil, Sobhi, and Alexandra Harley, eds. Education, Conflict and Social Cohesion. Geneva: UNESCO, International Bureau of Education, 2004.

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UN official documents

Impact of Armed Conflict on Children. Report of Graca Machel, Expert of the Secretary-General of the United Nations. New York: United Nations General Assembly, A/51/150, 26 August 1996. 

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Center for Democracy and Reconciliation in Southeast Europe (CDRSEE)

Center for the Study of Historical Consciousness (University of British Columbia)


Facing History and Ourselves

Institute for Historical Justice and Reconciliation (IHJR)

Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE)

The Scholars Initiative

Georg Eckert Institute for International Textbook Research

UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) - Education  

UNICEF (United Nations Childrens Fund)

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Case studies


Judt, Tony. Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945. New York: Penguin Books, 2005.

Maier, Charles S. The Unmasterable Past: History, Holocaust, and German National Identity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1988.

Former Yugoslavia

Byrne, Richard. Rebuilding Balkan Bridges. The Chronicle of Higher Education 52, no. 23 (February 10, 2006):12-16.

Hoepken, Wolfgang. War, Memory, and Education in a Fragmented Society: The Case of Yugoslavia. East European Politics and Societies 13, no. 1 (Winter 1999): 190-227.

Hughson, Holly. You, Me and Never the Twain Shall Meet: Perceptions of Education, History, Justice and Ethnicity in Kosovo. Copenhagen, Denmark: ADRA, 2004.

Petroska-Beska, Violeta and Mirjana Najcevska. Macedonia: Understanding History, Preventing Future Conflict. Washington, DC: US Institute of Peace (USIP), February 2004.


Oglesby, Elizabeth. Historical Memory and the Limits of Peace Education: Examining Gautemalas Memory of Silence and the Politics of Curriculum Design.  New York: Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs, June 2004.

Northern Ireland

Barton, Keith C. and Alan McCully. History Teaching and the Perpetuation of Memories: the Northern Ireland Experience. In The Role of Memory in Ethnic Conflict, edited by Ed Cairns and Micheal D. Roe, 107-124. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.

Smith, Margaret, E. Reckoning with the Past: Teaching History in Northern Ireland. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2005.

South Africa

Gibson, James L. Overcoming Apartheid: Can Truth Reconcile a Divided Nation? New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2004.

Naidu, Ereshnee and Cyril Adonis. History on Their Own Terms: The Relevance of the Past for a New Generation. Center for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, February 2007.

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