Electoral Processes & Political Parties: Bibliography

Academic resources

Allen, Tim. Trial Justice: The International Criminal Court and the Lords Resistance Army. London: Zed Books, 2006.

Brown, Michael E., Sean M. Lynn-Jones, and Steven E. Miller. Debating the Democratic Peace. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996.

Call, Charles T., and Susan E. Cook, eds. Special Issue on On Democratization and Peacebuilding. Global Governance 9, no. 2 (2003).

Carothers, Thomas. How Democracies Emerge: The Sequencing Fallacy. Journal of Democracy 18, no. 1 (2007): 12-27.

Chan, Steve. In Search of Democratic Peace: Problems and Promise. Mershon International Studies Review 41 (1997): 59-92.

Cohen, Youssef, Brian R. Brown, and A.F.K. Organski. The Paradoxical Nature of State Making: The Violent Creation of Order. American Political Science Review 75, no. 4 (1981): 901-10.

Diamond, Larry. Elections without Democracy: Thinking About Hybrid Regimes. Journal of Democracy 13, no. 2 (2002): 21-35.

Elman, Meriam Fendius, ed. Paths to Peace: Is Democracy the Answer? Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997.

Hartzell, Caroline and Matthew Hoddie. Institutionalizing Peace: Power Sharing and Post-Civil War Conflict Management. American Journal of Political Science 47 no. 2 (April 2003): 318-332.

Kant, Immanuel. Toward Perpetual Peace and Other Writings on Politics, Peace, and History (Rethinking the Western Tradition), edited by Pauline Kleingeld, translated by David L. Colclasure. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2006

Keen, David. The Economic Functions of Violence in Civil Wars. London: International Institute of Strategic Studies, 1998.

Kumar, Krishna. Reflections on International Political Party Assistance. Democratization 12, no. 4 (2005): 505-27.

Kumar, Krishna, ed. Post-Conflict Elections, Democratization and International Assistance. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1998.

Kurtenbach, Sabine. Why Is Liberal Peace-Building So Difficult? Some Lessons from Central America. Hamburg: German Institute for Global and Area Studies, September 2007.

Layne, Christopher. Kant or Cant: The Myth of the Democratic Peace. International Security 19, no. 2 (1994): 5-49.

Lijphart, Arend. Democracy in Plural Societies: A Comparative Exploration. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1977.

Lindberg, Staffan I. Opposition Parties and Democratisation in Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Contemporary African Studies 24, no. 1 (2006): 123-38.

Linz, Juan, and Alfred Stepan. Problems of Democratic Transitions and Consolidation. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.

Mansfield, Edward D., and Jack Synder. Democratic Transitions, Institutional Strength and War. International Organizations 56, no. 2 (2002): 297-337.

Mansfield, Edward D., and Jack Snyder. The Sequencing Fallacy. Journal of Democracy 18, no. 3 (2007): 5-22.

Paris, Roland. International Peacebuilding and the Mission Civilisatrice. Review of International Studies 28 (2002): 637-56.

Paris, Roland. At Wars End: Building Peace after Civil Conflict. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Pouligny, Beatrice. Promoting Democratic Institutions in Post-Conflict Societies: Giving Diversity a Chance. International Peacekeeping 7, no. 3 (2000): 17-35.

Pouligny, Beatrice. The Limits of Imposed Procedural Democracy in Post-War Societies. In Peace Operations Seen from Below. London: Hurst and Co., 2006.

Reilly, Benjamin. Electoral Assistance and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding: What Lessons Have Been Learned? Paper presented at the WIDER Conference on Making Peace Work, Helsinki, Norway, June 4-5, 2004.

Reilly, Benjamin. Electoral Systems for Divided Societies. Journal of Democracy 13, no. 2 (2002): 156-70.

Russett, Bruce. Grasping the Democratic Peace: Principles for a Post-Cold War World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993.

Snyder, Jack. From Voting to Violence: Democratization and Nationalist Conflict. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1994.

Stedman, Stephen John. Spoiler Problems in Peace Processes. International Security 22, no. 2 (1997): 5-53.

Tilly, Charles. Coercion, Capital, and European States AD 990-1992. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 1990.

Uvin, Peter. Rwanda: The Social Roots of Genocide. In War, Hunger, and Displacement: The Origins of Humanitarian Emergencies, vol. 2, edited by E. Wayne Nafziger, Frances Stewart, and Raimo Vayrynen, 159-86. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Van de Walle, Nicholas. Meet the New Boss, Same as the Old Boss? The Evolution of Political Clientelism in Africa. In Patrons, Clients and Policies: Patterns of Democratic Accountability and Political Competition, edited by Herbert Kitschelt and Steven I. Wilkinson, 50-67. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Wantchekon, Leonard. On the Nature of the First Democratic Elections. Journal of Conflict Resolution 43, no. 2 (1999): 245-58.

Zartman, William, and Victor A. Kremenyuk, eds. Peace versus Justice: Negotiating Forward and Backward-Looking Outcomes. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2005.

[Back to Top]

News and reports

Brahm, Eric. Election Monitoring. Beyond Intractability, September 2004.

Search for Common Ground. Search for Common Ground in Angola Launches Music CD Featuring Popular Angolan Musicians Focus on Unity, Diversity, Hope, Participation. Search for Common Ground Update, May 2008.

Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe Mission to Bosnia and Herzegovina. Legislative Support Programme and Parliamentary Support Programme.

[Back to Top]

Policy analysis and practitioner documents

African Union (AU). Draft Guidelines for Africa Union Electoral Observation and Monitoring Missions.  Addis Ababa: AU, 2002.

Article 19. Guidelines for Broadcast Coverage of Election Campaigns in Transitional Democracies. London: Article 19, 2002.

Blanc, Jarrett, Aanund Dylland and Kåre Vollan. State Structures and Electoral Systems in Post-Conflict Situations. Washington, DC: IFES, 2006. 

Bogaards, Matthijs. Electoral Choices for Divided Societies: Moderation through Constituency Pooling and Vote Pooling. Paper prepared for the 29th Joint Session Workshops on Parties, Party Systems and Democratic Consolidation in the Third World, Grenoble, France, April 6-11, 2001.

Boutros-Ghali, Boutros. An Agenda for Democratization. New York: United Nations, 1996.

Carothers, Thomas. Aiding Democracy Abroad: The Learning Curve. New York: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1999.

Catón, Matthias. Effective Party Assistance: Stronger Parties for Better Democracy. Stockholm: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, 2007.

Council of Europe. Handbook for Observers of Elections. Strasbourg: Council of Europe, 1997.

Electoral Commission Forum of Southern African Development Community Countries and Electoral Institute of Southern Africa (EISA). Principles for Election Management, Monitoring, and Observation in the SADC Region. Johannesburg: EISA, 2003.

Ellis, Andrew. Background Paper: Enhancing Womens Participation in Electoral Processes in Post-Conflict Countries. Background paper for the United Nations Office of the Special Advisor on Gender Issues and Advancement of Women, Department of Political Affairs, Glen Gove, NY, January 19-22, 2004.

Ellis, Andrew. Elections Are Not an Island: The Process of Negotiating and Designing Post-Conflict Electoral Institutions. Presentation paper for the conference, Post-Conflict Elections in West Africa: Challenges for Democracy and Reconstruction, Accra, Ghana, May 15-17, 2006.

European Commission. Handbook for European Union Election Observation,2nd ed. Brussels: European Commission, 2008.
Fitzduff, Mari, Cathy Gormley-Heenan, and Gordon Peake. From Warlords to Peacelords: Local Leadership Capacity in Peace Processes. Ulster: International Conflict Research Centre, 2004.

Grace, Jeremy. The Electoral Rights of Conflict Forced Migrants: A Review of Relevant Legal Norms and Instruments. Vienna: International Organization for Migration, June 2003.

Handley, Lisa. Delimitation Equity Project: Resource Guide. Washington, DC: International Foundation for Electoral Systems, 2006.

Harris, Peter, and Benjamin Reilly, eds. Democracy and Deep-Rooted Conflict: Options for Negotiators. Stockholm: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, 1998.

Howard, Ross. Media + Elections: An Elections Reporting Handbook. Vancouver: Institute for Media, Policy and Civil Society, 2004.

International Crisis Group (ICG). Sudan: Breaking the Abyei Deadlock. Brussels: ICG, 2007.

International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA). International Electoral Standards: Guidelines for Reviewing the Legal Framework of Elections. Stockholm: International IDEA, 2002.

Inter-Parliamentary Union. Revisiting Free and Fair Elections. An International Round Table on Election Standards organized by the Inter-Parliamentary Union, Geneva, Switzerland, November 2004. 

King, Orla, and Jeroen de Zeeuw. Political Party Development in Conflict-Prone Societies. The Hague: Netherlands Institute of International Relations, 2006.

Lyons, Terrence. Postconflict Elections: War Termination, Democratization, and Demilitarizing Politics. Fairfax, VA: Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution, George Mason University, February 2002. 

Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE). Document of the Copenhagen Meeting of the Conference on the Human Dimensions of the OSCE. Copenhagen: OSCE, 1990.

Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (OSCE ODIHR). Handbook for Domestic Election Observers. Vienna:OSCE, 2003.

Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (OSCE ODIHR). Election Observation Handbook. Vienna: OSCE, 2005.

Parliamentary Assembly. The Second Decade of OSCE PA Election Observation. Vienna: Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe, January 2004-January 2008.

Paris, Roland, and Timothy D. Sisk. Managing Contradictions: The Inherent Dilemmas of Postwar Statebuilding. New York: International Peace Academy, 2007.

Rajasingham-Senanayake, Darini. The International Post/Conflict Industry: Myths, Market Imperfections and the Need for a New Reconstruction Paradigm. Colombo: International Centre for Ethnic Studies, 2003.

Reilly, Benjamin. Political Parties in Conflict Prone Societies: Encouraging Inclusive Politics and Democratic Development. Tokyo: United Nations University Press, 2008.

Reynolds, Andrew. Electoral Systems and the Protection and Participation of Minorities. London: Minority Rights Group International, 2006.

Russo, Gabriele, ed. Joint Guidelines on Enhancing the Role of Women in Post-Conflict Electoral Processes. New York: United Nations, 2007.

Southern African Development Community (SADC) Parliamentary Forum Plenary Assembly. Norms and Standards for Elections in the SADC Region. Windhoek: SADC Parliamentary Forum, 2001.

Söderberg, Mimmi, and Thomas Ohlson. Democratisation and Armed Conflict. Stockholm: Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, 2003.

Sisk, Timothy D., ed. Democracy at the Local Level: The International IDEA Handbook on Participation, Representation, Conflict Management and Governance. Stockholm: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, 2001.

Sivapathasundaram, Dileepan. Elections in Post-Conflict Environments: The Role of International Organizations. Washington, DC: International Foundation for Electoral Systems, 2004.

Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA). Handbook for European Union Election Observation Missions. Stockholm: SIDA, 2002.


United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Electoral Assistance Implementation Guide. New York: UNDP, 2007.

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Electoral Systems and Processes. In Governance in Post-Conflict Situations. New York: UNDP, 2004.

UN Peacemaker. Operational Guidance Note: Postponement of an Election. New York: United Nations.

UN Peacemaker. Operational Guidance Note: Setting the Date of Elections. New York: United Nations.

Waddell, Nicholas, and Phil Clark, eds. Courting Conflict? Justice, Peace and the ICC in Africa. London: Royal Africa Society, 2008.

Wall, Alan, and Mohamed Salih. Engineering Electoral Systems: Possibilities and Pitfalls. The Hague: Netherlands Institute for Multiparty Democracy Knowledge Center, 2007.

[Back to Top]

United Nations and other official documents

Commission of the European Communities. Communication from the Commission on EU Election Assistance and Observation. Brussels: European Commission, 2000.

Electoral Law of Mozambique. Act No. 7/2004. Official Bulletin of the Republic, June 17, 2004.

Strengthening the Role of the United Nations in Enhancing the Effectiveness of the Principle of Periodic and Genuine Elections and the Promotion of Democratization. UN Doc. A/62/293, 2007.

Support by the United Nations System of the Efforts of Governments to Promote and Consolidate New or Restored Democracies. UN Doc. A/55/489, 2000.

United Nations. Declaration of Principles for International Election Observation and Code of Conduct for International Election Observers. New York: United Nations, 2005.

[Back to Top]


ACE Project

African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights

Asian Human Rights Charter: The Right to Democracy

Asian Network for Free Elections (ANFREL)

Carter Center Democracy Program

Centre for Policy Alternatives Election Monitoring Unit, Centre for Monitoring Election Violence (CMEV), Sri Lanka

Democracy Reporting International (DRI)

Domestic election observer website for Europe and Central Asia

Electoral Institute of Southern Africa (EISA)

European Commission: Electoral Assistance and Observation

International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES)

Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU)

National Democratic Institute for International Affairs

Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights: Elections

Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe Parliamentary Assembly: Election Observation

United Nations: Universal Declaration of Human Rights

United Nations Democracy Fund: Situating the UN Democracy Fund

United Nations Electoral Assistance Division

United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights: International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

The news, reports, and analyses herein are selected due to there relevance to issues of peacebuilding, or their significance to policymakers and practitioners. The content prepared by HPCR International is meant to summarize main points of the current debates and does not necessarily reflect the views of HPCR International or the Program of Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research. In addition, HPCR International and contributing partners are not responsible for the content of external publications and internet sites linked to this portal.