Empowerment: Children & Youth: Bibliography

Academic resources

Apfel, Roberta and Bennett Simon (eds.). Minefields in their Hearts: The Mental Health of Children in War and Community Violence. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996.

Bald, Stephanie H. Searching for a lost childhood: will the Special Court of Sierra Leone find justice for its children? 18 American University International Law Review 537 (2002): 532-246.

Barenbaum, Joshua, Ruchkin, Vladislav and Mary Schwab-Stone. The Psychosocial Aspects of Children Exposed to War: Practice and Policy Initiatives. New Haven: Yale Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine, 2004.

Boothby, Neil. Working in the War Zone: A Look at Psychological Theory and Practice from the Field. Mind and Interaction 2 (1990), 30-36.

Boyden, Jo. Childrens Experience of Conflict Related Emergencies: Some Implications for Relief Policy and Practice. Disasters 1 (1994).

Boyden, Jo. Children under Fire: Challenging Assumptions about Childrens Resilience. Children, Youth and Environments 13(1), Spring 2003.

Boyden, Jo and Joanna De Berry. Youth on the Front Line: Ethnography, Armed Conflict and Dsiplacement. Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2005.

Boyden, Jo, Jo de Berry, Thomas Feeny, and Jason Hart. Children Affected by Armed Conflict in South Asia: A Review of Trends and Issues Identified Through Secondary Research. Oxford: Refugees Studies Centre, University of Oxford, 2002.

Dauite, Colette, Zeynep Beykont, Craig Higson-Smith, and Larry Nucci (eds.). International Perspectives on Youth Conflict and Development. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Dawes, A., Tredoux, C.G., and Feinstein, A. Political Violence in South Africa: Some Effects on Children of the Violent Destruction of their Community. International Journal of Mental Health vol. 18, no. 2 (1989).

Del Felice, Celina and Andria Wisler. The Unexplored Power and Potential of Youth as Peace-builders. Journal of Peace Conflict & Development 11. (2007).

Fischer, Martina. The Need for Multi-Dimensional Youth Work: Education, Interethnic Networking, and Income Generation. In Peacebuilding and Civil Society in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Ten Years after Dayton, 233-256. Munster: Lit Verlag, 2006.

Gibbs, Sara. Postwar Social Reconstruction in Mozambique: Reframing Children's Experiences on Trauma and Healing. In Rebuilding Societies after Civil War: Critical Role for International Assistance, edited by Krishma Kumar, 227-238. London: Lynne Reinner Publishers, 1997.

Gillard, S. Winning the Peace: Youth, Identity and Peacebuilding in Bosnia and Herzegovina. International Peacekeeping, vol.8 (1) (2001): 77-98.

Goodwin-Gill, G. and I. Cohn. Child Soldiers: The Role of Children in Armed Conflict. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994.

Green, Edward C. and Alcinda Honwana. Indigenous Healing of War Affected Children in Africa. Africa Policy E-Journal. no. 10 (July 1999).

Guyot, Julie. Suffer the Children: The Need for Psychosocial Rehabilitation as a Function of Peace-Building.  Paper, School of Social Work, Howard University, 2005.

Hamilton, C. and T. Abu el-Haj. Armed Conflict: The Protection of Children Under International Law. The International Journal of Child Rights, vol. 5 (1997).

Hart, J. Childrens Clubs: New Ways of Working with Conflict-displaced Children in Sri Lanka. Forced Migration Review, no. 15 (2002): 36-39.

Hastie, R. and E. Stone. Disabled Children in a Society at War: a casebook from Bosnia. Disability and Society 13, no. 2 (1998), 306-308.

Honwana, Alcinda. Children's Involvement in War: Historical and Social Contexts. The Journal of the History of Childhood and Youth 1.1 (2008): 139-149.

Honwana, Alcinda. Healing for peace: traditional healers and post-war reconstruction in Southern Mozambique. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology 3 (1997): 293-305.

Jarman, Neil. Young People, Violence and Political Transition in Northern Ireland. In Youth Violence as a Challenge for International Cooperation, edited by Corrina Hauswedell and Sabine Kurtenbach. Loccum, Germany: Loccumer Protokolle, 2008.

Jones, Lynne. Adolescent Understandings of Political Violence and their Relationship to Mental Health: A Qualitative Study of Bosnia Herzegovina. Paper submitted to the International Conference on War-Affected Children, Winnipeg, September 11-17, 2000.

Kahuranaga, Ruth. Children Affected by Armed Conflict: Child Rights Law vs. Compliance. Presented to the 4th World Congress on Family Law and Child Rights, Cape Town, South Africa, March 20-23, 2005.

Kemper, Yvonne. Youth in War to Peace Transitions. Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management, Berghof Report 10 (2005).

Loughry, Maryanne. Psychological Concepts in Humanitarian Work with Children:  A Review of the Concepts and Related Literature.  Presented at the Roundtable on the Demography of Forced Migration, Joseph L. Mailman School of Public Health Program on Forced Migration and Health, Columbia University, New York, 2003.

Lowicki, Jane and Allison Pillsbury. Recognizing War-affected Adolescents: Frameworks for Action. Development 43, no. 1 (2000), 73-84.

Machel, Graca. Impact of War on Children: A Review of Progress Since the 1996 United Nations Report on the Impact of Armed Conflict on Children. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2001.

Mann, Gillian. Separated Children: Care and Support in Context. In Children and Youth on the Frontline: Ethnography, Armed Conflict, and Displacement Studies in Forced Migration Vol. 14, edited by Jo Boyden and Joanna de Berry, 3-32. New York: Berghahn Books, 2004.

Marks, Monique and Penny McKenzie. Political Pawns or Social Agents? A Look at Militarized Youth in South Africa. Paper presented at Confronting Crime Conference, Cape Town, South Africa, September 1995.

Mawson, Andrew. Children, Impunity and Justice: Some Dilemmas from Northern Uganda. In Children and Youth on the Frontline: Ethnography, Armed Conflict, and Displacement Studies in Forced Migration Vol. 14, edited by Jo Boyden and Joanna de Berry. New York: Berghahn Books, 2004.

McCallin, M. Understanding the Psychosocial Needs of Refugee Children and Adolescents. In The Refugee Experience: Psychosocial Training Module Vol. 1, edited by M. Loughry and A. Ager. Oxford: Refugee Studies Center, 2001.

McEvoy, S. Communities and Peace: Catholic Youth in Northern Ireland. Journal of Peace Research 37, no. 1 (2000), 85-103.

McEvoy-Levy, Siobhán. Youth as Social and Political Agents: Issues in Post-Settlement Peace Building. Occasional Paper, Kroc Institutes Research Initiative on the Resolution of Ethnic Conflict (RIREC), Butler University, Indianapolis, December 2001.

McEvoy-Levy, Siobhán. Troublemakers or Peacemakers?  Youth and Post-Accord Peacebuilding AKA Silenced Voices: Youth and Their Peer Relationships in Armed Conflict and its Aftermath. Paper presented at the International Studies Association Annual Meeting, Honolulu, HI, March 5, 2005.

McEvoy-Levy, Siobhán. Strategies for Addressing Youth in the Immediate Post-Accord Period. In In War As In Peace? Youth Violence as a Challenge for International Cooperation, edited by Corina Hauswedell and Sabine Kurthenbach. Loccum, Germany: Loccumer Protokolle, 2008.

McIntyre, Angela. Rights, Root Causes and Recruitment: The Youth Factor in Africas Armed Conflicts.African Security Review 12, no. 2 (2003).

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McIntyre, Angela and Thokozani Thusi. Children and Youth in Sierra Leones Peace-Building Process. African Security Review 12, no. 2 (2003).

McKay, Susan. The Effect of Armed Conflict on Girls and Women. Peace and Conflict 4, no. 4 (1998): 381-392.

McKay, Susan and Dyan Mazurana. Where Are The Girls? Girls in fighting forces in Northern Uganda, Sierra Leone and Mozambique: Their lives during and after war.  2004, 18.

Miles, S. and Medi, E. Disabled Children in Post War Mozambique: Developing Community Based Support. Disasters 18, no. 3 (1994), 284-291.

Obote-Odora, Alex. Legal Problems with Protection of Children in Armed Conflict. Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law 6, no. 2 (1999), 1-13.

Olson, Krisjon Rae. Children the Grey Spaces Between War and Peace. The Uncertain Truth of Memory Acts. In Children and Youth on the Frontline: Ethnography, Armed Conflict, and Displacement Studies in Forced Migration Vol. 14, edited by Jo Boyden and Joanna de Berry. New York: Berghahn Books, 2004.

Plunkett, M. and D. Southall. War and Children. Archives of Disease in Childhood, no. 78, (1998): 72-77.

Protacio-De Castro, Elizabeth. Children in Armed Conflict Situations: Focus on Child Soldiers in the Philippines. Kasarinlan 16, no. 2 (2001).

Rousseau, C., M. Morales, and P. Foxen. Going Home: Giving Voice to Memory Strategies of Young Mayan Refugees who Returned to Guatemala as a Community. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry 25, no. 2 (2001): 135-168.

Salmon, Gavriel. Does Peace Education Make a Difference in the Context of an Intractable Conflict? Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology 10, no. 3 (2004): 257-247.

Schafer, Jessica. The Use of Patriarchal Imagery in the Civil War in Mozambique and its Implication for the Reintegration of Child Soldiers. In Children and Youth on the Frontline: Ethnography, Armed Conflict, and Displacement Studies in Forced Migration Vol. 14, edited by Jo Boyden and Joanna de Berry. New York: Berghahn Books, 2004.

Sheppard, A. Child Soldiers: Is the Optional Protocol Evidence of an Emerging  Straight-18 Consensus? The International Journal of Children's Rights 8 (2000), 37-70.

Smyth, Marie.The Militarization of Youth in Violently Divided Societies: Some observations on Northern Ireland, South Africa and the Middle East. Georgetown Journal of International Affairs (2003): 83-90.

Tolfree, D. (ed.). Restoring Playfulness: Different Approaches to Assisting Children who are Psychologically Affected by War or Displacement. Stockholm: Radda Barnen, 1996.

Weinstein, Harvey M., Sarah Warshauer Freedman, and Holly Hughson. School Voices: Challenges Facing Education Systems after Identity-Based Conflicts. Education, Citizenship and Social Justice (2007): 41-71.

Wells, Sarah L. Crimes Against Child Soldiers in Armed Conflict Situations: Application and Limits of International Humanitarian Law. Tulane Journal of International and Comparative Law 287 (2004): 287-306.

Wessells, Michael. Child Soldiers: From Violence to Protection. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2007.

Wessells, Michael G. Children, Armed Conflict, and Peace. Journal of Peace Research 35, no. 5 (1998): 635-646.

Yong Meng Yoong, Mary. Child Soldiers: Problems of definition, Role and Factors for Recrutment. Journal of the Royal Malaysia Police Senior Officers College (2004).

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News and reports

UN Envoy. Time to Punish Parties who Use or Abuse Children in Armed Conflicts. New York: February 12, 2008.

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Policy analysis and practitioner documents

Alfredson, Lisa. Sexual Exploitation of Child Soldiers: An Exploration and Analysis of Global Dimensions and Trends. Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, 2001.

Amnesty International. In the Firing Line: War and Childrens Rights. London: Amnesty International, 1999.

Baines, Erin, Eric Stover, and Marieke Wierda. War-Affected Children and Youth in Northern Uganda: Toward a Brighter Future.An Assessment Report, John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, Chicago, IL, May 2006.

Balch, J., P. Johnson, and R. Morgan. Apartheid and Destabilization in Southern Africa: The Legacy for Children and the Challenges Ahead. In Transcending the Legacy: Children in the New Southern Africa, Amsterdam, Harare, Nairobi: AEI/SARDC/UNICEF, 1995.

Bangura, Barbara. Returning the Girls Home: Reintegration and Resocialisation of Abducted and Ex-Girl Soldiers: A Case Study from Sierra Leone, West Africa. Sierra Leone: West Africa Network for Peace Building, 2002.

Barker, Gary. Adolescents, Social-Support and Help-Seeking Behaviour. Brazil: World Health Organisation, 2007.

Becker, Jo. Children as Weapons of War. Human Rights Watch Report, 2004.

Bird, Lindsay. Children in Crisis: Education Rights for Children in Conflict Affected and Fragile States. Save the Children, 2008.

Biro, Peter. Mata Hari: The Voice of Reconciliation. International Rescue Committee, Indonesia: 9 July 2007.

Boyden, J. and S. Gibbs. Children of War: Responses to Psycho-social Distress in Cambodia. United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, 1997.

Cameron, S. Out of War: True Stories from the Front Line. New York: UNICEF, 2002.

Canadian International Development Agency. Working for and with War Affected Children and Youth. Canada: Children as Peacebuilders Project, 2003.

Canadian International Development Agency. From Words to Action: Final Conference Report. Report, the International Conference on War-Affected Children, Winnipeg, Canada. September 10-17, 2000.

Cantwell, N. Starting from Zero: the Promotion and Protection of Childrens Rights in Post-Genocide Rwanda July 1994-December 1996. Florence: UNICEF/ICDC, 1997.

Children and War: Impact, Protection and Rehabiliation. Post-Conflice Peacebuilding: Assessing DDR Processes. Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre, Accra, Ghana, August 28-30, 2006.

Cohn, Ilene. Post-Conflict Programming Feelings Fatigue? UN Chronicle XXXVI, no. 2 (1999).

Harvey, Rachel. Children and Armed Conflict: A Guide to International Humanitarian and Human Rights Law. The Children and Armed Conflict Unit and the International Bureau for Childrens Rights, 2001.

Human Rights Watch and Africa Human Rights Watch. The Scars of Death: Children Abducted by the Lord's Resistance Army in Uganda. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1997.

International Committee of the Red Cross. Children In War. Geneva: International Committee of the Red Cross, 1994.

(The) International Save the Children Alliance. Promoting Psychosocial Well-Being Among Children Affected by Armed Conflict and Displacement: Principles and Approaches. Save the Children, 1996.

Kosovar Youth Council. Promoting Kosovar Adolescent/Youth Protection and Capacities: Youth Identified Problems and Solutions. Working paper, International Conference on War-Affected Children, Winnipeg, Canada, September 11-17, 2000.

Man, N. Children, Torture and Power: the torture of children by states and armed opposition groups. London: OMCT/Save the Children, 2000.

McAskie, Carolyn. Interactive Dialogue on the Review of the Implementation of the 2004 Agree Conclusions on Womens Equal Participation in Conflict Prevention, Management and Conflict Resolution and in Post-Conflict Peacebuilding. Draft statement, 52nd Session of the Commission on the Status of Women, New York, NY, February 29, 2008.

McConnan, I.  and S. Uppard. Children Not Soldiers: Guidelines for Working with Child Soldiers and Children Associated with Fighting Forces. London: Save the Children UK, 2001.

Ressler, E., J. Tortorici, and A. Marcelino. Children in Situations of Armed Conflict. New York/Geneva: UNICEF, 1992.

Rosandic, Ruzica. Grappling with Peace Education in Serbia. Peaceworks 33 (2000).

Save the Children. Last in Line, Last in School 2008: How Donors Can Support Education for Children Affected by Conflict and Emergencies. United Kingdom: Save the Children, 2008. 

Save the Children Fund UK. The Impact of Armed Conflict on Children: Report of an International Conference on Low Intensity Conflict. Belfast: Save the Children Fund UK, Northern Ireland Divisional Office, 1996.

Save the Children Fund UK. War Brought Us Here: Protecting Children Displaced within their Own Countries by Conflict. London: SCF UK, 2000.

Schell-Faucon, Stephanie. Conflict Transformation Through Educational and Youth Programmes. Berlin: Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation, 2001.

Shipler, Michael. Youth Radio for Peacebuilding: A Guide, 2nd Edition. Washington, DC: Search for Common Ground and Radio for Peacebuilding Africa, 2006.

Smyth, Marie. Youth in Violently Divided Societies. Washington, DC: USIP, 2003.

Sommers, Marc. Children, Education and War: Reaching Education for All (EFA) Objectives in Countries Affected by Conflict. Washington, DC: World Bank Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction Unit, 2002.

Toole, Daniel. Peacebuilding Strategies: Transition from Relief to Development: Why Children and Early Intervention Matter. New York: UNICEF, 2006.

Urdal, Henrik. A Clash of Generations? Youth Bulges and Political Violence. International Studies Quarterly 50 (2007): 607-629.

Womens Commission. Untapped Potential: Adolescents Affected by Armed Conflict. A Review of Programs and Policies. New York: Womens Commission for Refugee Women and Children, 2000.

Womens Commission. Youth Speak Out: New Voices on the Protection and Participation of Young People Affected by Armed Conflict. New York: Womens Commission for Refugee Women and Children, 2004.

World Bank. World Development Report 2007: Development and the Next Generation. Washington, DC: World Bank, 2007.

World Bank. Reshaping the Future: Education and Postconflict Reconstruction. Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 2005.

World Vision. Children and Peacebuilding: Experiences and Perspectives. Australia: World Vision, 2001.

Youth for Peace. The Role of Youth in Peace Building: Summary Report. 2nd Peace Conference. Report, second annual Peace Conference, Siem Reap Angkor, Cambodia, September 20-25, 2007.

UNESCO. Conflict Affected and Fragile States. Background paper prepared by Save the Children, Education for All by 2015: Will We Make It? Paris, France, 2008.

UNICEF. Youth Health for Change: A UNICEF Notebook on Programming for Young Peoples Health and Development. New York: UNICEF, 1996.

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UN official documents

Machel, Graça. Promotion and Protection of the Rights of Children: Impact of Armed Conflict on Children. Note by the United Nations Secretary-General, New York, August 26, 1996.

UNICEF. United Nations Convention on the Rights of a Child. New York: United Nations Children Fund, 1989.

UNICEF. Map of programmes for adolescent participation during conflict and post-conflict situations. New York: United Nations, 2003.

UN Secretary-General. Report of the Special Representative to the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict. New York: United Nations Headquarters, 2008.

UN. Our Shared Responsibility: Report of the High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges, and Change. New York: United Nations Headquarters, 2004.

UNDP. Human Development Report 2007/2008. New York: United Nations, 2007.

UNDP. Small Arms and Light Weapons. Essentials, UNDP Practice Area: Crisis Prevention and Recovery, Synthesis of Lessons Learned, No. 9, October 2002.

UNDP. Youth and Violent Conflict: Society and Development in Crisis. Geneva: United Nations Development Programme, 2006.

UN Secretary-General. Children and Armed Conflict: Report of the Secretary General. New York, NY: United Nations, 2007.

UN Secretary-General. UN Approach to Justice for Children. Guidance Note of the Secretary-General, NY: United Nations, September 2008.

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Amnesty International - Children and Human Rights

BBC World Service - Children of Conflict

Canadian International Development Agency - Childrens Rights and Protection

Canadian Peacebuilding Coordinating Committee: Documents on Children and Armed Conflict

Center for Defense Information - Children and Armed Conflict

Children and Armed Conflict Unit on-line

Childrens Rights across the World

Children and Armed Conflict Unit

Child Rights Information Network Resources - List of Publications - Theme: Armed Conflict

Childwatch International Research Network - Children in Armed Conflict

Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers

Committee on the Rights of the Child

Defence for Children International

Global Youth Peacebuilding Initiative

Human Rights Watch - Child Soldiers

Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre - Internally Displaced Children

International Bureau for Childrens Rights

Little Elephant

Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict

Pax-Africa: African Peace and Security Agenda

Save the Children

United Nations Children Fund

United Nations Cyberschoolbus

United Nations High Commission for Refugees - A Childs World

United Nations World Map of Child Soldiers

United Network of Young Peacebuilders

War Child International

Watchlist on Children in Armed Conflict

West Africa Network for Peace Building

Womens Commission for Refugee Women and Children

World Vision International Resources on Child Rights

Youth Advocate Program International - Armed Conflict

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