Natural Resources: Bibliography


Academic Resources

Addison, Tony, and S Mansoob Murshed. “Explaining Violent Conflict: Going Beyond Greed Versus Grievance.” Special Issue of International Development, 15, no. 4.

Amsden, Alice. Escape from Empire: The Developing World’s Journey Through Heaven and Hell. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007, chapter 8.

Amsden, Alice. The Rise of the Rest: Challenges to the West from Late Industrializing Economies. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Auty, Richard M. “Sustaining Development in Mineral Economies: The Resource Curse Thesis.” London: Routledge, 2003.

Boelens, Rutgerd. “From Universal Prescriptions to Living Rights: Local and Indigenous Water Rights Confront Public-Private Partnerships in the Andes.” Journal of International Affairs, 61, no. 2, (Spring/Summer 2008).

Borel, Rolain, Erin McCandless, and Mohammed Abu-Nimer. “Environment and Natural Resource-Related Conflicts: Moving Towards Transformational Approaches,” Journal of Peacebuilding and Development 2, no. 1 (2006): 4-5.

Brown, Kaysie. “War Economies and Post- Conflict Peacebuilding: Identifying a Weak Link.” Journal of Peacebuilding and Development, 3: 1 (2006): 8.

Brunnschweiler, Christa N., and Erwin H. Bulte. “Natural Resource Abundance and Violent Conflict: Resource Abundance, Dependence and the Onset of Civil Wars,” Working paper no. 08/78, Zurich: CER-ETH Center of Economic Research at ETH, January 2008, 1.

Caruso, Raul. “Butter, Guns and Ice-Cream: Policy Implications of Economic Theories of Conflict.” MIT International Review, February 2009.

Cater, Charles. “The Political Economy of Conflict and UN Intervention: Rethinking the Critical Cases of Africa.” The Political Economy of Armed Conflict. Boulder: Lynne Reinner Publishers, Inc., 2003.

Collier, Paul, and Anke Hoeffler, “Greed and Grievance in Civil War,” Oxford Economic Papers 56. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004: 565.

Collier, Paul, and Benedikt Goderis. “Commodity Prices, Growth, and the Natural Resource Curse: Reconciling a Conundrum.” Oxford: University of Oxford, Department of Economics, 2007, 3.

Collier, Paul, et al. Breaking the Conflict Trap: Civil War and Development Policy. World Bank and Oxford University Press, 2003, 132.

Collier, Paul. “Doing Well Out of War: An Economic Perspective.” In Greed and Grievance: Economic Agendas in Civil Wars, edited by Mats R. Berdal and David M. Malone. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2000, 91.

Collier, Paul. “Managing Commodity Booms: Lessons of International Experience” Paper prepared for the African Economic Research Consortium, Centre for the Study of African Economies, Oxford University, January 2007, 1-2.

Collier, Paul. The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries are Failing and What Can be Done about It. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Corden, W.M., and J.P. Neary. "Booming Sector and De-industrialization in a Small Open Economy," The Economic Journal 92 (December 1982): 285-848.

Dunn, Malcolm H. “Privatization, Land Reform, and Property Rights: the Mexican Experience.” Constitutional Political Economy 11 no. 3 (2000): 215-230.

Dunning, Thad. “Authoritarianism and Democracy in Rentier States.” Berkeley: University of California, 2005.

Ellickson, Robert C. “Property in Land,” Yale Law Journal 102 (1993): 1322-1335; 1341-1344

Fafchamps, Marcel. "Networks, Communities and Markets in Sub-Saharan Africa: Implications for Firm Growth and Investment," Journal of African Economies 10 (2001): 109-142.

Fearon, James D. “Primary Commodity Exports and Civil War,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 49, no. 4, (2005): 483-507.

Fearon, James D. “Why Do Some Civil Wars Last So Much Longer Than Others?” Journal of Peace Research 43, no. 3: 275-301.

Fearon, James, and David Laitin, "Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War," American Political Science Review 97, no. 1 (2003): 75-90.

Feeney, Patricia, and Tom Kenny. “Conflict Management and the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises.” In Profiting from Peace, edited by Karen Ballentine and Heiko Nitzschke. Boulder: Lynne Reinner Publishers, Inc., 2005, 366.

Feenstra, Talitha, Herman Cesar and Peter Kort, “Optimal Control Theory in Environmental Economies.” In Handbook of Environmental and Resource Economics, edited by Jeroen C.J.M. van den Bergh. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2002, 1105.

Francis, David. Uniting Africa: Building Regional Peace and Security Systems. London: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2006, 83.

Gerson, Allan. “Peace Building: The Private Sector’s Role,” The American Journal of International Law 95, no. 102 (2001): 108.

Gleditsch, N. P., and H. Urdal, "Ecoviolence? Links Between Population Growth, Environmental Scarcity and Violent Conflict in Thomas Homer-Dixon's Work," Journal of International Affairs 56:1 (2002): 283-302.

Grossman, H.I. “A General Equilibrium Model of Insurrections.” The American Economic Review 81 no. 4 (1991): 912-921.

Hagmann, Tobias. “Confronting the Concept of Environmentally Induced Conflict,” Peace, Conflict and Development, 6 January 2005: 3.

Humphreys, Macartan, and Jeremy M. Weinstein. “Demobilization and Reintegration.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 51 no. 4 (2007): 531-567.

Humphreys, Macartan, Jeffrey D. Sachs, and Joseph E. Stiglitz ed. Escaping the Resource Curse. New York: Columbia University Press, 2007.

Humphreys, Macartan. “Economics and Violent Conflict.” Commissioned essay, Harvard University, Cambridge, February 2003, 2.

Humphreys, Macartan. “Natural Resources and Armed Conflicts: Issues and Options.” In Karen Ballentine and Heiko Nitzscke, Profiting from Peace: Managing the Resource Dimensions of Civil War. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers,Inc., 2005, 30.

Humphreys, Macartan. “Natural Resources, Conflict, and Conflict Resolution: Uncovering the Mechanisms,” Journal of Conflict Research 49, no. 4 (2005): 508-537.

Johnstone, Nick, and Joshua Bishop. “Private Sector Participation in Natural Resource Management: What Relevance in Developing Countries?International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics, 2007: 67.

Karl, Terry Lynn. The Paradox of Plenty: Oil Booms and Petro-States. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1997.

Keen, David. "The Economic Functions of Violence in Civil Wars." Adelphi Papers, Routledge, 1998.

Kennedy, David. “The ‘Rule of Law,’ Political Choices, and Development Common Sense.” In David M. Trubek and Alvaro Santos eds., The New Law and Economic Development: A Critical Appraisl. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006, 95-173.

Khan, Mushtaq H., and Jomo K.S. “Introduction.” In Rents, Rent-seeking and Economic Development: Theory and Evidence in Asia, edited by. Mushtaq H. Khan and Jomo K.S. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000, 5.

Klare, Michael T. Resource Wars- The New Landscape of Global Conflict, Metropolitan, New York: Owl Books, 2002, 25.

Krugman, Paul. "Increasing Returns and Economic Geography," The Journal of Political Economy 99, no. 3 (1991).

Kyrou, Christos N. “Peace Ecology: An Emerging Paradigm in Peace Studies,” International Journal of Peace Studies, Volume 12, Number 1, Spring/Summer 2007.

Le Billon, Philippe ed. “The Geopolitics of Resource Wars: Resource Dependence, Governance and Violence.” New York: Routledge, 2005, 15.

Le Billon, Philippe. Fuelling War: Natural Resources and Armed Conflict. London: Adelphi Paper 373, IISS, 2005, 54.

Le Billon, Philippe. “The Political Ecology of War: Natural Resources and Armed Conflict,” Political Geography 20 (2001): 561-584.

McCandless, Erin, and Tyler Christie. “Beyond Sanctions: Evolving Integrated Strategies to Address Natural Resource-Based Challenges in Post-Conflict Liberia, Journal of Peacebuilding and Development, Volume 2, Number 1, 2006.

McDougal, Topher L. “Development During Crisis: Promoting Asset-Building in Protracted Refugee Situations.” MIT International Review Spring 2007.

McDougal, Topher L. “Law of the Landless: The Dalit Bid for Land Redistribution in Gujarat, India.” Master’s Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007.

O’Toole, Kathleen. “Why Peace Agreements Often Fail to End Civil Wars.” Stanford Online Report November 19, 1997.

Ouellet, Julian. “Structural Components of Peace Agreements.” In Beyond Intractability, edited by Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. Boulder: University of Colorado, Conflict Research Consortium, September 2004.

Oyefusi, Aderoju. “Natural Resource Abundance and Development: Is There a Paradigm Shift?” Journal of Business and Public Policy, Volume 1, Number 3 (Summer 2007): 2.

Patterson, Orlando. "Context and Choice in Ethnic Allegiance." In Ethnicity: Theory and Experience, by Nathan Glazer and Daniel Moynihan. Cambridge: Harvard University Press (1975): 305-349.

Pennsylvania State University, “International Development, Renewable Resources and the Environment: Glossary,” Pennsylvania State University.

Pessoa, Argentino. “Natural Resources and Institutions: The ‘Natural Resources Curse’ Revisited.” Paper no. 8640, Munich Personal RePEc Archive, May 5, 2008, 5.

Porter, Michael. "Regions and the New Economics of Competition." In Global City-Regions, edited by Allen J. Scott. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001, 139-157.

Prebisch, Raul. “Commercial Policy in the Underdeveloped Countries.” American Economic Review 49 (1959): 257-269.

Radon, Jenik. “Chapter 4: How to Negotiate an Oil Agreement?” In Escaping the Resource Curse, edited by Macartan Humphreys, Jeffrey D. Sachs and Joseph E. Stiglitz New York: Columbia University Press, 2007, 97.

Rodrik, Dani. In Search of Prosperity: Analytic Narratives on Economic Growth. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2003.

Ross, Michael L. “How Mineral-Rich States Can Reduce Inequality.” In Macartan Humphreys, Jeffrey D. Sachs and Joseph E. Stiglitz (eds), Escaping the Resource Curse. New York: Columbia University Press, 2007, 237.

Ross, Michael L. “What Do We Know about Natural Resources and Civil War?” Journal of Peace Research 41, no. 3 (2004): 338, 350.

Ross, Michael L. “Oil, Drugs, and Diamonds: The Varying Roles of Natural Resources in Civil War.” In Karen Ballentine and Jake Sherman, eds., The Political Economy of Armed Conflict: Beyond Greed and Grievance. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2003, pp. 47–70.

Saumitra Jha. “Trade, Institutions and Religious Tolerance: Evidence from India,” Manuscript, 2007.

Tho, Vo Ngan. “Livelihood Strategies of the Poor in Peri-urban Interface of Ho Chi Minh City” Master Thesis in Rural Development with Specialization in Livelihood and Natural Resource Management, Hue City: Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry, October 2005: 4

Tilly, Charles. Coercion, Capital, and European States. Cambridge: Basil Blackwell, 1992.

Tullock, Gordon. “The Welfare Costs of Tariffs, Monopolies, and Theft,” Western Economic Journal 5, no. 3 (1967): 224–232.

University of Vermont, “Environmental Conflict Resolution: The Cyberary,” Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural Resources.

Wallensteen, Peter, Mikael Eriksson, and Daniel Strandow, Sanctions for Conflict Prevention and Peace Building: Lessons Learned from Côte d’Ivoire and Liberi. Uppsala: Uppsala University Department of Peace and Conflict Research, 2006, 6, 26.

Weinstein, Jeremy. “Autonomous Recovery and International Intervention in Comparative Perspective.” Working Paper No. 57, Stanford University Center for Global Development, 2005.

Weinstein, Jeremy. “Resources and the Information Problem in Rebel Recruitment.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 49 no. 4 (2005): 598-624

Yawanarajah, Nita, and Julian Ouellet. “Peace Agreements.” In Beyond Intractability, edited by Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. Boulder: University of Colorado, Conflict Research Consortium, September 2003.

News and Reports

The Economist, “Keeping the Sparkle at Home: African Diamond Producers Want to Extract More Value from their Stones.” The Economist, March 19, 2008.

The Economist. Economics A-Z: profit.” The Economist.

The Economist. Economics A-Z: rent.” The Economist.

IRIN. “The Long Journey Home: an IRIN Web Special on the Challenge of Refugee Return and Reintegration.” IRIN, February 2005.

Lall, Upmanu, et al. “Water in the 21st Century: Defining the Elements of Global Crisis and Potential Solutions.” International Affairs, 61, no. 2 (Spring/Summer 2008): 1.

Policy Analysis and Practitioner Documents

Allport, Gordon. The Nature of Prejudice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1954.

Anuradha, Joshi. “Progressive Bureaucracy: An Oxymoron? The Case of Joint Forest Management in India,” Network paper 24a, Overseas Development Institute, London, UK, 1999.

Babiker, Mustafa. “Communal Land Rights and Peace-building in North Kordofan: Policy and Legislative Challenges.” Sudan Working Paper SWP 2008:3. Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute, 2008.

Ballentine, Karen, and Jake Sherman. The Political Economy of Armed Conflict: Beyond Greed and Grievance. Boulder Lynne Rienner Publishers International Peace Academy, 2003.

Ballentine, Karen. “Program on Economic Agendas in Civil Wars: Principal Research Findings and Policy Recommendations.” New York: International Peace Academy, April 2004, 3.

Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC), “Resource Conflict Monitor: Governing the Dynamic Between Natural Resources and Violent Conflict,” BICC.

CECORE and Saferworld, “Water Provision as a Peacebuilding Tool: Developing a conflict-sensitive Approach to Water Delivery in Uganda.” London: CECORE and Saferworld, June 2008, 1.

Chambers, Robert, and Gordon Conway, “Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: Practical Considerations for the 21st Century,” IDS Discussion Paper 296 (1991): 6.

Collier, Paul, Anke Hoeffler, and Nicholas Sambanis. “The Collier-Hoeffler Model of Civil War Onset and the Case Study Project Research Design.” In Understanding Civil War, edited by Paul Collier and Nicholas Sambanis. Washington, D.C.: World Bank Publications, 2005.

Collier, Paul. "Economic Causes of Civil Conflict and their Implications for Policy." In Managing Global Chaos, edited by Chester A. Crocker. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace, 2000.

Cotula, Lorenzo, Camilla Toulmin, and Ced Hesse. Land Tenure and Administration in Africa: Lessons of Experience and Emerging Issues. London: International Institute for Environment and Development, 2004.

Department for International Development (DFID), “Sustainable Livelihoods Guidance Sheet: Introduction,” (London: DFID), 1.1.

Development Assistance Committee (DAC), “Issues Brief: Water and Violent Conflict” Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2005, 2.

European Environment Agency, “Environmental Terminology Discovery Service,” European Environment Agency.

Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), “EITI Summary,” EITI.

Fafo Institute for Applied Social Science. “The Logs of War: The Timber Trade and Armed Conflict.” Report commissioned by Global Witness, 2002, 5.

Fouquin, Michel, Rolf J. Langhammer, and Rainer Schweickert, “Natural Resource Abundance and its Impact on Regional Integration: Curse or Blessing?” Discussion note, Sao Paulo: ELSNIT/Fundacao Getulio Vargas Conference, April 7, 2006, 2.

Global Policy Forum, “Kimberley Process,” Global Policy Forum.

Global Policy Forum, “Water in Conflict,” Global Policy Forum.

Global Witness, The Sinews of War – Eliminating the Trade in Conflict Resources. London: Global Witness, 2006.

Heiko Nitzscke. “Transforming War Economies: Challenges for Peacemaking and Peacebuilding.” Sussex: Report of the 725th Wilton Park Conference, in association with the International Peace Academy, October 27-29, 2003, 9.

International Crisis Group and Fiona Hall, “Security, Development and Forest Conflict: A Forum for Action.” Summary Report. Brussels, 2006.

International Monetary Fund (IMF). “Taxing Natural Resources – New Challenges and New Perspectives.” IMF.

Jamaica Clearing-House Mechanism, “Exploitation of Natural Resources,” Biodiversity for High Schools.

Keen, David. “Conflict, Trade and Economic Agendas.” CCTS Newsletter 19 London: Committee for Conflict Transformation Support.

Koser, Khalid. “The Return of Refugees and IDPs and Sustainable Peace.” The Brookings Institute. Coordinating Chaos Conference, Trudeau Centre for the Study of Peace and Conflict, University of Toronto, February 10, 2008.

Le Billon, Philippe. “Getting It Done: Instruments of Enforcement.” In Natural Resources and Violent Conflicts: Options and Actions, edited by Ian Bannon and Paul Collier. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, 2003, 216.

Leach, Melissa. “Plural Perspectives and Institutional Dynamics: Challenges for Community Forestry.” In Adaptive Management: From Theory to Practice, edited by James Oglethorpe, (IUCN, 2002): 75.

Leckie, Scott. “Housing, Land & Properties Rights in Post-Conflict Societies: Proposals for a New United Nations Institutional and Policy Framework.” Geneva, Switzerland: UNHCR, 2005.

Lidow, Nicholai. “Lootable Natural Resources and Rebel Group Organization.” Manuscript, 2008.

Lidow, Nicholai. “Resources and Rebel Organization: A Comparative Study of Armed Groups in Ituri.” Paper prepared for the Midwest Political Science Association Conference, Chicago, IL, April 2-5, 2009.

Linn, Johannes F. “Central Asia’s Energy Challenge: Overcoming the Natural Resource Curse” Washington DC: The Brookings Institution, August 22, 2008.

Lujala, Päivi. Classification of Natural Resources.” Paper prepared for presentation at the 2003 ECPR Joint Session of Workshops, Edinburgh, UK 28.3 – 2.4, 2003: 10.

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC), “Vision and Mission,” MSC.

Nilsson, Christina. “Climate Change from an Indigenous Perspective: Key Issues and Challenges.” In Indigenous Affairs, edited by Christina Nilsson and Mark Nuttall, 1-2/08 International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, 9.

Nitzschke, Heiko, and Kaysie Studdard, “The Legacies of War Economies: Challenges and Options for Peacemaking and Peacebuilding,” International Peacekeeping, 12, no. 2 (2005): 222-239.

Nitzscke, Heiko. “Transforming War Economies: Challenges for Peacemaking and Peacebuilding.” Sussex: Report of the 725th Wilton Park Conference, in association with the International Peace Academy, October 27-29, 2003, 9.

Ohiorhenuan, John, and Chetan Kumar. Sustaining Post-conflict Economic Recovery: Lessons and Challenges. BCPR Occasional Paper 1, New York: United Nations Development Programme, October 2005, 7.

Publish What You Pay United States (PWYP), “Promoting Transparency: The Unique Role and Responsibility of International Financial Institutions.” PWYP Briefing Paper Series #4, Washington, DC: PWYP.

Pugh, Michael, and Neil Cooper, War Economies in a Regional Context. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2004, 8.

Reno, William. “African Weak States and Commercial Alliances,” African Affairs 96 (1997): 165-85.

Rights and Resources Initiative (RRI). Seeing People Through the Trees: Scaling Up Efforts to Advance Rights and Address Poverty, Conflict and Climate Change. Washington DC: RRI, 2008, 21.

Rosser, Andrew. “The Political Economy of the Resource Curse: A Literature Survey.” Working Paper 268, University of Sussex: Institute of Development Studies, April 2006, 15.

Rubin, Barnett R. “The Political Economy of War and Peace in Afghanistan.” Eurasianet.

Rupiya, Martin. “The Goldenberg Conspiracy, UN Panel of Experts, A Peace-building Tool?Occasional Paper 112, Department for International Development, September 2005.

Sikor, Thomas. Public and Private in natural Resource Governance: A False Dichotomy? London: Earthscan, March 2008.

Singer, Hans.The Distribution of Gains Between Investing and Borrowing Countries.” American Economic Review, vol. 40, no. 2, (1950): 473-485.

Singer, Hans.The Distribution of Gains Between Investing and Borrowing Countries.” American Economic Review 40, no. 2, (1950): 473-485.

United Nations (UN), “United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Natural Resources and Conflict in Africa: Transforming a Peace Liability into a Peace Asset.” Cairo: UN, 2006.

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). “Post-Conflict Economic Recovery: Enabling Local Ingenuity: Crisis Prevention and Recovery Report.” New York: UNDP Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery, 2008, 44.

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), “Organization Profile.” Nairobi: UNEP, 3.

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). “Understanding Environment, Conflict and Cooperation.” Nairobi: UNEP, Division of Early Warning and Assessment, 2004.

United Nations Environment Programme Division of Early Warning and Assessment (DEWA). Understanding Environment, Conflict and Cooperation. New York: UNEP, 2004.

United Nations Peacebuilding Support Office (PBSO). “From Conflict to Peacebuilding: The Role of Natural Resources and Environment.” Briefing paper prepared by PBSO in cooperation with UNEP. New York: May 2008, 2.

United States Agency for International Development (USAID). “Minerals and Conflict: A Toolkit for Intervention,” USAID (2005): 4.

USAID, “Land and Conflict.” Washington, DC: USAID, 2004, 17.

Waldman, Linda, et al., “Environment, Politics and Poverty: Lessons from a Review of PRSP Stakeholder Perspectives” Brighton: Institute of Development Studies, 2005, 31.

Weinthal, Erika, and Pauline Jones Luong, “Combating the Resource Curse: An Alternative Solution to Managing Mineral Wealth,” Perspectives on Politics, 4 (1): 35–53.

The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, “Environmental Conflict Resolution: Strategies for Environmental Grantmakers” The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, 2.

Wolf, Aaron T. “Water and Human Security,” Aviso, Issue number 3, June 1999.

The World Bank Institute Learning Programs, “Climate Change, Environment and Natural Resource Management.” The World Bank.

The World Bank Parliamentarians, “Environment.” The World Bank.

UN Official Documents

United Nations (UN). “United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples,” A/RES/61/295. New York: United Nations, 2008.

United Nations Peacebuilding Commission, “Environment, Conflict and Peacebuilding.” Concept note, New York: Peacebuilding Commission, May 8, 2008.

United Nations Peacebuilding Commission, “From Conflict to Peacebuilding: The Role of Natural Resources and Environment.” WGLL/2008/10. New York: Peacebuilding Commission Working Group on Lessons Learned, May 8, 2008.


Bonn International Center for Conversion

Department for International Development

European Environment Agency

Forest Stewardship Council

Global Policy Forum

Global Witness

International Crisis Group

International Monetary Fund

Kimberley Process

Liberia Governance and Economic Management Assistance Program (GEMAP)

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Glossary of Statistical Terms: Natural Resources

Publish What You Pay

Rainforest Action Network

Revenue Watch Institute

United Nations Forum on Forests


The World Bank

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