Last Updated: December 17, 2008

Academic resources

Andeweg, Rudy B. Consociational Democracy. Annual Review of Political Science 3, no. 1 (2000): 509-36.

Andrews, Penelope, and Stephen Ellmann, eds. The Post-Apartheid Constitutions: Perspectives on South Africas Basic Law. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press, 2001.

Association Bosnia and Herzegovina. Conference Report: International Conference for Bosnia and Herzegovina. Conference paper for1995-2005, Bosnia and Herzegovina: Ten Years of Dayton and Beyond, Geneva, Switzerland, October 20-21, 2005.

Aucoin, Louis. The Role of International Experts in Constitution-Making: Myth and Reality. Georgetown Journal of International Affairs 5, no. 1 (2004): 89-95.

Barma, Naazneen H. Brokered Democracy-Building: Developing Democracy through Transitional Governance in Cambodia, East Timor and Afghanistan. International Journal on Multicultural Societies 8, no. 2 (2006): 127-61.

Bastian, Sunil, and Robin Luckham, eds. Can Democracy Be Designed? The Politics of Institutional Choice in Conflict-torn Societies. London: Zed Books, 2003.

Belloni, Roberto. State Building and International Intervention in Bosnia. London: Routledge, 2007.

Benomar, Jamal. Constitution-Making After Conflict: Lessons for Iraq. Journal of Democracy 15, no. 2 (2004): 81-95.

Bose, Sumantra. The Bosnian State a Decade after Dayton. International Peacekeeping 12, no. 3 (2005): 322-35.

Brownlie, Ian, and Guy S. Goodwin-Gill. Basic Documents on Human Rights, 5th edition. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992.

Cook, Rebecca J., ed. Human Rights of Women: National and International Perspectives. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1994.

Donnelly, Jack. The Relative Universality of Human Rights. Human Rights Quarterly 29, no. 2 (2007): 281-306.

Ebrahim, Hassen. The Soul of a Nation: Constitution-Making in South Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Elgie, Robert. Semi-Presidentialism: Concepts, Consequences and Contesting Explanations. Political Studies Review 2, no. 3 (2004): 314-30.

Foweraker, Joe, and Todd Landman. Constitutional Design and Democratic Performance. Democratization 9, no. 2 (2002): 43-67.

Goetz, Anne Marie. Gender and Accountability. In Women Making Constitutions: New Politics and Comparative Perspectives, edited by Alexandra Dobrowolsky and Vivien Hart, 52-67. Houndmills: Palgrave, 2003.

Grofman, Bernard, and Jon Fraenkal. Does the Alternative Vote Foster Moderation in Ethnically Divided Societies? The Case of Fiji. Comparative Political Studies 39, no. 5 (2006): 623-51.

Hale, Henry E. Divided We Stand: Institutional Sources of Ethnofederal State Survival and Collapse. World Politics 56, no. 2 (2004): 165-93.

Hart, Vivien. Constitution-Making and the Transformation of Conflict. Peace and Change 26, no. 2 (2001): 153-76.

Holsti, Kalevi J. The State, War, and the State of War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Horowitz, Donald L. Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1985.

Hyden, Goren, and Denis Venter, eds. Constitution-Making and Democratisation in Africa. Pretoria: Africa Institute of South Africa, 2001.

Irving, Helen. Gender and the Constitution: Equity and Agency in Comparative Constitutional Design. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Issacharoff, Samuel. Constitutionalizing Democracy in Fractured Societies. Texas Law Review 82, no. 7 (2004): 1861-93.

Joppke, Christian. Transformation of Citizenship: Status, Rights, Identity. Citizenship Studies 11, no. 1 (2007): 37-48.

Krasner, Stephen D. Sharing Sovereignty: New Institutions for Collapsed and Failing States. International Security 29, no. 2 (2004): 85-120.

Lijphart, Arend. Democracy in Plural Societies: A Comparative Exploration. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1977.

Lijphart, Arend. Consociation and Federation: Conceptual and Empirical Links. Canadian Journal of Political Science 12, no. 3 (1979): 499-515.

Lijphart, Arend. Constitutional Design for Divided Societies. Journal of Democracy 15, no. 2 (2004): 96-104.

Linz, Juan J., and Alfred Stepan. Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation: Southern Europe, South America, and Post-Communist Europe. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.

Norris, Pippa. Stable Democracy and Good Governance in Divided Societies: Do Power-Sharing Institutions Work? Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Kennedy School of Government, February 2005.

Reilly, Benjamin. Electoral Systems for Divided Societies. Journal of Democracy 13, no. 2 (2002): 156-70.

Reynolds, Andrew. Constitutional Engineering in Southern Africa. Journal of Democracy 6, no. 2 (1995): 86-99.

Reynolds, Andrew, ed. The Architecture of Democracy: Constitutional Design, Conflict Management, and Democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Sachs, Albie. The Creation of South Africas Constitution. New York Law School Law Review 41 (1997).

Schmitt, Carl. Political Theology: Four Chapters on the Concept of Sovereignty. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, 1985.

Sh298-2 (2007),y of Human Rights.gelical Studentsurope amme, rmal justice systemsestack, Jerome J. The Philosophic Foundations of Human Rights. Human Rights Quarterly 20, no. 2 (1998): 201-34.

Skach, Cindy, and Alfred Stepan. Constitutional Frameworks and Democratic Consolidation: Parliamentarianism versus Presidentialism. World Politics 46, no. 1 (1993): 1-22.

Sunstein, Cass R. Designing Democracy? What Constitutions Do. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Swamy, Anand, Steve Knack, Young Lee, and Omar Azfar. Gender and Corruption. Journal of Development Economics 64, no. 1 (2001): 25-55.

Their, J. Alexander. The Making of a Constitution in Afghanistan. New York Law School Law Review 51, no. 3 (2007): 556-79.

Widner, Jennifer. Constitution Writing and Conflict Resolution. United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research Paper 51, 2005.

Widner, Jennifer. Constitution Writing in Post-Conflict Settings: An Overview. William and Mary Law Review 49 (2008): 1513-41.

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News and reports

Armon, Jeremy, Laura Gibbons and Dylan Hendrickson. Introduction: Cambodias Constitutional Challenge. In Safeguarding Peace: Cambodias Constitutional Challenge, edited by Dylan Hendrickson. Durban: African Centre for the Constructive Resolution of Disputes, 1998.

Conflict Trends Magazine 1 (2001).

International Crisis Group (ICG). Afghanistans Flawed Constitutional Process. Brussels: ICG, June 2003.

International Crisis Group (ICG). Iraqs Constitutional Challenge. Brussels: ICG, November 2003.

Lajcák, Miroslav. European Momentum Is More Powerful than Obstructionist Forces. Office of the High Representative and European Union Special Representative, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Press Release, August 10, 2008.

Trouble in the East: The New Electoral Law Angers the Former Rebels and Could Set the Eastern Provinces Ablaze. Africa Confidential 47, no. 5 (2007).

Tsivhidzo, Edwin. South Africa: Learners to Be Taught Bill of Responsibility. AllAfrica, February 18, 2008.

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Policy analysis and practitioner documents

Autheman, Violaine. Global Lessons Learned: Constitutional Courts, Judicial Independence and the Rule of Law. Washington, DC: International Fellowship of Evangelical Students, 2004.

Brandt, Michele. Constitutional Assistance in Post-Conflict Countries: The UN Experience: Cambodia, East Timor and Afghanistan. New York: United Nations, 2005.

Center for European Integration Strategies (CEIS). Overcoming the War in the Heads: Renewing Bosnias Constitutional Debate. Geneva: CEIS, May 2006.

Cottrell, Jill. A Glossary of Constitutional Terms. Stockholm: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, December 2007.

Emeric, Rogier. The Inter-Congolese Dialogue: A Critical Overview. In Challenges of Peace Implementation: The UN Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, edited by Mark Malan and João Gomes Porto, 25-42. Johannesburg: Institute for Security Studies, 2003.

Gaventa, John. Introduction: Exploring Citizenship, Participation and Accountability. Brighton: Institute of Development Studies, 2002.

Ghai, Yash. The Constitution Reform Process: Comparative Perspectives. Paper presented at the conference, Toward Inclusive and Participatory Constitution Making, Kathmandu, Nepal, August 3-4, 2004.

Ghai, Yash, and Guido Galli. Constitution Building Processes and Democratization. Stockholm: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, 2006.

Harris, Peter, and Benjamin Reilly. Democracy and Deep-Rooted Conflict: Options for Negotiators. Stockholm: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, 1998.

Hart, Vivien. Democratic Constitution Making. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, July 2003.

Horowitz, Donald L. Some Realism about Peacemaking. Paper presented at the conference Facing Ethnic Conflicts, Bonn, Germany, December 14-16, 2000.

Human Rights Watch. Ituri: Covered in Blood: Ethnically Targeted Violence in Northeastern DR Congo. New York: Human Rights Watch, July 2003.

Inter-Congolese Dialogue (ICD). Inter-Congolese Political Negotiations: The Final Act. Signatories of the ICD, April 2003.

Juncos, Ana E. The EUs Post-Conflict Intervention in Bosnia and Herzegovina: (Re)Integrating the Balkans and/or (Re)Inventing the EU? Southeast European Politics 6, no. 2 (2005): 88-­108.

Mamdani, Mahmood.  When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2002.

Morrow, Jonathan. Iraqs Constitutional Process II: An Opportunity Lost. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, December 2005.

Morrow, Jonathan. Weak Viability: The Iraqi Federal State and the Constitution Amendment Process. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, July 2006.

Olivier, Louise. Constitutional Review and Reform and the Adherence to Democratic Principles in Constitutions in Southern African Countries. Johannesburg: Open Society Initiative for Southern Africa, 2007.

Samuels, Kirsti. A Guidance Note: Developing a Constitution Building Strategy to Create Sustainable, Legitimate Constitutions. Kirsti Samuels Consulting, 2008.

Samuels, Kirsti. Constitutional Choices and Statebuilding in Postconflict Countries. In The Dilemmas of Statebuilding: Confronting the Contradictions of Postwar Peace Operations, edited by Roland Paris and Timothy D. Sisk. London: Routledge, 2008.

Samuels, Kirsti, and Vanessa Hawkins Wyeth. State-Building and Constitutional Design after Conflict. New York: International Peace Academy, 2006.

Sebastiàn, Sofia. Leaving Dayton Behind: Constitutional Reform in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Madrid: Fundación para las Relaciones Internacionales y el Diálogo Exterior, November 2007.

Shoemaker, Jolynn. By the People for the People: Constitution-Building, Gender and Democratization. Gender and Constitution-Building: From Paper to Practice: Critical Half Bi-Annual Journal of Women for Women International 3, no. 1 (2005).

Solioz, Christophe. Prospects for Balkan Stability: Ownership, Transitional Process and Regional Integration in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Geneva: Graduate Institute Program for the Study of International Organizations, August 2001.

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The Constitution and Its Relationship to the Legislature. New York:United Nations.

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United Nations and other official documents

African Union. African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights.

Asian Human Rights Commission. Asian Human Rights Charter.

Organization of American States. American Convention on Human Rights.

South African Government Information. Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Act 200 of 1993.

United Nations. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW).

United Nations. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR).

United Nations. Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

United Nations Secretary-General. Progress Report on the Prevention of Armed Conflict. UN Doc. A/60/891, 2006.

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Centre for Democracy and Development

Constitution Finder, University of Richmond



Forum of Federations

Global Database of Quotas for Women, International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance and Stockholm University

Human Rights Library, University of Minnesota

International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance: Democracy Building and Conflict Management, Constitution Building

Political Database of the Americas Constitutions and Comparative Constitutional Study, Center for Latin American Studies, Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University

United Nations Peacemaker

The news, reports, and analyses herein are selected due to there relevance to issues of peacebuilding, or their significance to policymakers and practitioners. The content prepared by HPCR International is meant to summarize main points of the current debates and does not necessarily reflect the views of HPCR International or the Program of Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research. In addition, HPCR International and contributing partners are not responsible for the content of external publications and internet sites linked to this portal.