Last Updated: December 19, 2008

Academic resources

Boudreaux, Karol. The Business of Reconciliation: Entrepreneurship and Commercial Activity in Post-conflict Rwanda. Economic Affairs 27, no. 2.

Boyce, James and Madalene ODonnell. Peace and the Public Purse. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc., 2007.

Caldwell, John C. Demographic Transition Theory. New York: Springer, 2006.

De Waal, Alex. Social Mobilization for Peace. In Demilitarizing the Mind: African Agendas for Peace and Security, edited by Alex De Waal. Trenton: Africa World Press, Inc., 2002.

De Waal, Alex. Realising Child Rights in Africa: Children, Young People and Leadership. In Young Africa: Realising the Rights of Children and Youth, edited by Alex De Waal and Nicolas Argenti. Trenton: World Press, Inc., 2002.

Kirk, Dudley. Demographic Transition Theory. Population Studies 50, no. 3 (November 1996).

Pugh, Michael. The Political Economy of Peacebuilding: A Critical Theory Perspective. International Journal of Peace Studies 10, no. 2 (Autumn/Winter 2005): 23-42.

Twum-Danso, Afua. The Political Child. In Invisible Stakeholders: Children and War in Africa, edited by Angela McIntyre. South Africa: Institute for Security Studies, 2005.

Urdal, Henrik. Clash of Generations? Youth Bulges and Political Violence. International Studies Quarterly 50 (2006): 607-630.

Woodward, Susan. Economic Priorities for Successful Peace Implementation. In Ending Civil Wars: The Implementation of Peace Agreements, edited by Stephen John Stedman, Donald Rothchild, and Elizabeth M. Cousens. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, Inc., 2002.

Zuckerman, Elaine and Marcia Greenberg. The Gender Dimensions of Post-Conflict Reconstruction: An Analytical Framework for Policymakers. Gender and Development: An Oxfam Journal  12, no. 3 (2004).

[Back to Top]

News and reports

Pringle, Chanel. Youth Makes Up 60% of Africas Unemployed: World Bank Report. Polity. December 5, 2008.

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Entrepreneurship Centre Takes Off. OECD Observer, January 2005,

[Back to Top]

Policy analysis and practitioner documents

Allden, Susanne. Microfinancial Entrepreneurship: A Tool for Peacebuilding and Empowerment in Timor-Leste and Cambodia? Paper presented at the Annual International Studies Association Convention, San Francisco: March 2008.

Banfield, Jessica, Canan Gunduz and Nick Killick, eds. Local Business, Local Peace: the Peacebuilding Potential of the Domestic Private Sector. London: International Alert, 2006.

Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee. Vision. BRAC.

Betcherman, Gordon, Martin Godfrey, Susana Puerto, Friederike Rother and Antoneta Stavreska. A Review of Interventions to Support Young Workers: Findings of the Youth Employment Inventory. SP Discussion Paper Number 0715. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank: Social Protection, October 2007.

The Campaign for U.S. Ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). Home. Child Rights Campaign.

Canadian International Development Agency. Gender Equality and Peacebuilding: An Operational Framework. Gatineau: CIDA.

Chambers, Robert and Gordon R. Conway. Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: Practical Concepts for the 21st Century. IDS Discussion Paper 296. Brighton: Institute of Development Studies, December 1991.

Cincotta, Richard P., Robert Engelman, and Daniele Anastasion. Chapter 3: Stress Factor One; The Youth Bulge. In The Security Demographic: Population and Civil Conflict After the Cold War. Washington, D.C.: Population Action International, 2003.

Date-Bah, Eugenia. Crises and Decent Work: A Collection of Essays. Geneva: International Labour Office, 2001.

de Satge, Rick. Livelihoods Analysis and the Challenges of Post-Conflict Recovery. In Supporting Sustainable Livelihoods: A Critical Review of Assistance in Post-Conflict Situations edited by Jenny Clover and Richard Cornwell. Monograph Number 102. Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies, August 2004,

De Zeeuw, Jeroen. Building Peace in War-Torn Societies: From Concept to Strategy. The Netherlands: Clingendael Institute, Research Project on Rehabilitation, Sustainable Peace and Development, August 2001.

Demirguc-Kunt, Asli Leora F. Klapper and Georgios A. Panos. Entrepreneurship in Post-conflict Transition: The Role of Informality and Access to Finance. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, March 2008.

Freedman, David H. Youth Employment Promotion: A Review of ILO Work and the Lessons Learned. Geneva: International Labour Organization, Employment Strategy Department, 2005.

Fukuda-Parr, Sakiko and Robert Picciotto. Conflict Prevention and Development Co-operation in Africa: A Policy Workshop. New York: Conflict Prevention and Development Cooperation: Joint Project of JICA and UNDP, May 2007.

Fukuda-Parr, Sakiko. Rethinking the Policy Objectives of Development Aid: From Economic Growth to Conflict Prevention. Research Paper Number 2007/32. Tokyo: United Nations University, June 2007.

Gergis, Abdalla. Citizen Economic Empowerment in Botswana: Concepts and Principles. BIDPA Working Paper Number 22. Gabarone: BIDPA, July 1999.

Humphreys, Macartan and Richards, Paul. Prospects and Opportunities for Achieving the MDGs in Post-conflict Countries: A Case Study of Sierra Leone and Liberia. CGSD Working Paper Number 27. New York: The Earth Institute at Columbia University, Center on Globalization and Sustainable, October 2005.

Institute of Development Studies. News at IDS: Being Strategic About the Meanings of Womens Empowerment. Brighton: IDS, February 27, 2008.

International Council on Social Welfare. Commission for Social Development 45th Session, UN Chair Summary. Utrecht: ICSW, 2007.

International Labour Organization (ILO). About the ILO. ILO.

International Labour Organization (ILO). Decent Work- The Heart of Social Progress. ILO.

International Labour Organization (ILO). Director-Generals Introduction to the International Labour Conference: Decent Work for Sustainable Development. ILC 96-2007/Report I (A). Geneva: ILO, 2007.

International Labour Organization (ILO). Employment Intensive Investment Program: Iraq. ILO.

International Labour Organization (ILO). Guidelines Concerning a Statistical Definition of Informal Employment. Geneva: ILO, November 1, 2003.

International Labour Organization (ILO). ILO Crisis Response and Reconstruction Programme. ILO Crisis Response and Reconstruction Programme.

International Labour Organization (ILO). ILO Places Centrality of Employment in Post-Conflict Reconstruction. Tokyo: ILO, January 28, 2008.

International Labour Organization (ILO). Microfinance for Decent Work: Organization and Responsibilities of the Social Finance Programme (SFP). Circular Number 246. Geneva: ILO, January 31, 2007.

International Labour Organization (ILO). Micro-finance in Post-Conflict Countries: Towards a Common Framework for Action: Workshop Report. ILO/UNHCR Workshop, September 15-17, 1999.

International Labour Organization (ILO). Microfinance in Post-Conflict Situations: Towards Guiding Principles for Action. ILO/UNHCR Workshop, September 15-17, 1999.

International Labour Organization (ILO). Resolution Concerning Statistics of the Economically Active Population, Employment, Unemployment and Underemployment, Adopted by the Thirteenth International Conference of Labour Statisticians. ILO, October 1982.

International Labour Organization (ILO). United Nations Initiative on Youth Employment. Committee on Employment and Social Policy. GB.286/ESP/5. Geneva: ILO, March 2003.

International Labour Organization (ILO). Women and Men in the Informal Economy: A Statistical Picture. Geneva: ILO, 2002.

Islam, Rizwanul. The Nexus of Economic Growth, Employment and Poverty Reduction: An Empirical Analysis. Issues in Employment and Poverty Discussion Paper 14. Geneva: Recovery and Reconstruction Department of the ILO, January 2004.

Kabeer, Naila. The Conditions and Consequences of Choice: Reflections on the Measurement of Womens Empowerment. UNRISD Discussion Paper Number 108. Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, August 1999.

Katz, Elizabeth. Programs Promoting Young Womens Employment: What Works? In The Adolescent Girls Initiative: An Alliance Economic Empowerment. World Bank, October 2008.

Khan, A.R. Employment and Millenium [sic] Development Goals: Analytics of the Linkage in the Context of an Accelerated Effort to Achieve the MDGs. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Political Economy Research Institute, October 2007.

Kilroy, Austin. Post-conflict Economic Recovery: A Critical Review of Current Literature and Paradigms. Paper prepared for Groupe URD, September 2005.

Klot, Jennifer F. Women and Peacebuilding. Independent Expert Paper Commissioned by the United Nations Development Fund for Women and The Peacebuilding Support Office. New York: Social Science Research Council, January 29, 2007,

Larsson, Allan. Empowerment of the Poor in Informal Employment, Commission on Legal Empowerment of the Poor.  January 20-21, 2006.

Liu, Eva and Jackie Wu. The Measurement of Unemployment and Underemployment. Hong Kong: Research and Library Services Division, Legislative Council Secretariat, February 4, 1999.

Malhotra, Anju, Sidney Ruth Schuler, and Carol Boender. Measuring Womens Empowerment as a Variable in International Development. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, June 28, 2002.

Mendelson-Forman, Johanna and Merriam Mashatt. Employment Generation and Economic Development in Stabilization and Reconstruction Operations. Stabilization and Reconstruction Series Number 6. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace, March 2007.

Mercy Corps. The History of Microfinance. Mercy Corps.

Naudé, Wim. Peace, Prosperity, and Pro-Growth Entrepreneurship. Discussion Paper Number 2007/02. Helsinki: United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research, August 2007,

New Zealands International Aid and Development Agency (NZAID). Achieving Gender Equality and Womens Empowerment. NZAID.

Nkurunziza, Janvier D. Generating Rural Employment in Africa to Fight Poverty. Paper presented at ECOSOCs High-Level Segment. New York: United Nations Economic and Social Council May 9, 2006,

North American Regional Consultation on Sustainable Livelihoods. Principles of Sustainable Livelihoods. People-centered Development Forum, January 13-15, 1995.

Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Peacebuilding: A Development Perspective. Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Framework for Durable Solutions for Refugees and Persons of Concern. Geneva: UNHCR, May 2003.

Oxfam International. OI Policy Compendium Note on Gender Issues in Conflict and Humanitarian Crises. Oxford: Oxfam International, December 2007.

Peacebuilding Commission. Gender and Peacebuilding: Enhancing Womens Participation. WGLL/20008/7. New York: Peacebuilding Commission Working Group on Lessons Learned, January 29, 2008.

Potter, Michael. Models of Peacebuilding in Community-Based Womens Empowerment Projects in Ireland. Paper presented at Political Studies Association of Ireland Annual Conference, Cork: University College Cork, October 20-22, 2006.

Reardon, Thomas, K. Stamoulis, M.E. Cruz, A. Balisacan, J. Berdegue, and B. Banks. Rural Non-farm Income in Developing Countries. In The State of Food and Agriculture 1998. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization, 1998.

Rehn, Elisabeth and Ellen Johnson Sirleaf. Women, War and Peace: The Independent Experts Assessment on the Impact of Armed Conflict on Women and Womens Role in Peace-building. New York: United Nations Development Fund for Women, 2002.

Rodrik, Dani. Goodbye Washington Consensus, Hello Washington Confusion, Cambridge: Harvard University, January 2006.

San Pedro, Paula. Empowerment in Practice: Post-conflict Scenarios. Madrid: Fundacion Para Las Relaciones Internacionales y El Dialogo Exterior, December 2006.

The SEEP Network. Economic Recovery Standards: Standard 1: Decent Employment. The SEEP Network.

South African Coastal Information Centre. Sustainable Livelihoods.  South African Coastal Information Centre.

Stockholm Environment Institute. Implementing Sustainability: Sustainable Livelihoods: Definitions. SEI.

Supersad, Madhuri. Decent Work and Vocational Training: The Role of the State and the Social Partners. The Inter-American Centre for Knowledge Development in Vocational Training.

United Nations. The United Nations Youth Agenda: Empowering Youth for Development and Peace. Youth and the United Nations.

United Nations. UN System-wide Policy Paper: Employment Creation, Income Generation and Reintegration in Post-Conflict Settings. New York: United Nations, May 2008,

United Nations. Youth at the United Nations: Frequently Asked Questions. United Nations.

United Nations ACC Inter-Agency Committee on Women and Gender Equality and Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development/Development Assistance Committee Working Party on Gender Equality. Womens Empowerment in the Context of Human Security. UN ACC and OECD/DAC, December 7-8, 1999.

United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF). Child and Youth Participation Guide. New York: UNICEF, June 2006.

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA). Guidelines on Womens Empowerment. United Nations Population Information Network (POPIN).

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA). Guide to the Implementation of the World Programme of Action for Youth. New York: DESA, 2006.

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA). Review of National Action Plans on Youth Employment:  Putting Commitment into Action. New York: DESA, 2007.

United Nations Development Group (UNDG). An Assessment of the Role and Experiences of UN Agencies in Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers. New York: UNDG, November 17, 2003,

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Employment for Poverty Reduction. UNDP.

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Post-Conflict Economic Recovery: Enabling Local Ingenuity. New York: Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery, 2008.

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Sustainable Livelihoods and Emergencies. New York: UNDP.

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Youth and Violent Conflict: Society and Development in Crisis? New York: UNDP, 2006.

United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). Commission for Social Development: Report on the Forty-fifth Session. Official Records, Supplement Number 6, (E/2007/26). New York: ECOSOC, 2007.

United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA). The State of Demographic Transition in Africa. ECA/FSSDD/01/10. Addis Ababa: UNECA, December 2001.

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Higher Education in Post-Conflict Situations. UNESCO.

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Strategies for Reconstruction of Education in Crisis and Post-Conflict Situations. Paris: UNESCO, November 29, 2002.

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Gender-related Terminology. UNEP.

United Nations Peacebuilding Fund (UNPF). UN Peacebuilding Fund: Bridging the Gap Between Conflict and Recovery. UNPF.

United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT). A Global Partnership Initiative (GPI) for Urban Youth Development in Africa: Enhancing the Engagement of Youth in the Work of UN-Habitat. Nairobi: UN-Habitat.

United States Agency for International Development (USAID). Assistance for Iraq. USAID,

Womens Commission for Refugee Women and Children. Masculinities: Male Roles and Male Involvement in the Promotion of Gender Equality: A Resource Packet. New York: Womens Commission for Refugee Women and Children, September 2005.

Womens Commission for Refugee Women and Children. Youth and Sustainable Livelihoods: Linking Vocational Training Programs to Market Opportunities in Northern Uganda. New York: Womens Commission for Refugee Women and Children, July 2008.

Womens International League for Peace and Freedom. United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security. Womens International League for Peace and Freedom,

Woodward, Susan. Issues Note. Inwent.

The World Bank. Africa Development Indicators (ADI) 2008/9. The World Bank.

The World Bank. Children and Youth:  A Framework for Action. Washington, D.C.: World Bank Children and Youth Unit, 2005.

The World Bank. The Conflict Analysis Framework (CAF): Identifying Conflict-related Obstacles to Development. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, October 2002.

The World Bank. Fragile and Conflict-Affected Countries. The World Bank.

The World Bank. Social Protection and Labor. The World Bank.

The World Bank Group. Social Protection Sector Strategy: From Safety Net to Springboard. Washington, D.C.: World Bank Publications, January 2001.

[Back to Top]

UN official documents

United Nations General Assembly. Convention on the Rights of the Child. General Assembly Resolution 44/25. November 20, 1989.

United Nations General Assembly. Prevention of Armed Conflict: Report of the Secretary-General. A/55/985-S/2001/574. June 7, 2001.

United Nations General Assembly. Universal Declaration of Human Rights. December 1948.

United Nations General Assembly. World Programme of Action for Youth to the Year 2000 and Beyond. United Nations A/RES/50/81, December 14, 1995.

The news, reports, and analyses herein are selected due to there relevance to issues of peacebuilding, or their significance to policymakers and practitioners. The content prepared by HPCR International is meant to summarize main points of the current debates and does not necessarily reflect the views of HPCR International or the Program of Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research. In addition, HPCR International and contributing partners are not responsible for the content of external publications and internet sites linked to this portal.