Last Updated: December 19, 2008

Academic resources

Black, Richard and Khalid Koser. The End of the Refugee Cycle? Refugee Repatriation and Reconstruction. New York: Berghahn Books, 1999.

Clements, Frank. Conflict in Afghanistan: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO, 2003.

De Waal, Alex. Famine Crimes: Politics and the Disaster Relief Industry in Africa. London: James Currey, 1997.

Dialogue on Voluntary Repatriation and Sustainable Reintegration in Africa. Refugee Survey Quarterly (October 2004).

Duffield, Mark. Global Governance and the New Wars. London: Zed Books, 2001.

Foster, Michael. Causation in Context: Interpreting the Nexus Clause in the Refugee Convention. Michigan Journal of International Law 23 (Winter 2002).

Kourula, Pirkko. Broadening the Edges: Refugee Definition and International Protection Revisited. Leiden: Martinhus Nijhoff Publishers, 1997.

Lauterpacht, Sir Elihu and Daniel Bethelehem. The Scope and Content of the Principle of Non-refoulement: Opinion. In Refugee Protection in International Law, edited by Erika Feller, Volker Turk, and Frances Nicholson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Maynard, Kimberly. Healing Communities in Conflict. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999.

Rieff, David. A Bed for the Night: Humanitarianism in Crisis. London: Vintage, 2002.

Smillie, Ian. The Alms Bazaar: Altruism under Fire: Non-profit Organizations and International Development. London: Intermediate Technology Publications, 1995.

Thakur, Ramesh. Reforming the UN: Changing with and for the Times. International Peacekeeping 10, no. 4 (Winter 2003): 40-61.

UNDPs Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery. Forced Migration Review 20 (May 2004).

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News and reports

Iqbal, Anwar. U.S. Opposes Refugee Repatriation. DAWN Group of Newspapers, June 29, 2008.

IRIN. The Long Journey Home: an IRIN Web Special on the Challenge of Refugee Return and Reintegration. IRIN, February 2005.

Majtenyi, Cathy. Refugees Returning to Southern Sudan Face Hardship. VOA News. May 27, 2005.

Mojumdar, Aunohita. Afghanistans Refugee Challenge. Al Jazeera, August 12, 2008.

United Nations Security Council. Solutions to Refugee Problem Common Responsibility, Require Adequate Resources, Ruud Lubbers Tells Security Council. United Nations. Press Release SC/8099. May 20, 2004.

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Policy analysis and practitioner documents

African Union. Draft Policy Framework for Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Development (PCRD).Addis Ababa: African Union, February 2006.

Anderson, Mary. International Assistance and Conflict: An Exploration of Negative Impacts. Case Studies Series Number 1. Cambridge: Local Capacities for Peace Project, 1994.

Babbitt, Eileen, Rebecca Dale, Brian Ganson, Ivana Vuco, Branka Peuraca, Holly Benner, and Odette Nyirakabyare. Imagine Coexistence: Assessing Refugee Reintegration in Divided Communities.Providence: The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, July 2002.

Barnett, Michael. The Best of Times, the Worse of Times: The Evolution of Humanitarianism and the UNHCR. Paper presented at annual meeting for the International Studies Association. Montreal, Canada, March 17-21, 2004.

Bialczyk, Agata. Voluntary Repatriation and the Case of Afghanistan: A Critical Examination. Working Paper Number 46. Oxford: University of Oxford Refugees, Studies Centre, January 2008.

Bohnett, Thomas. Refugees No More - South Sudanese Return to their Homes. International Rescue Committee, April 14, 2008,

The Brookings Institution. When Displacement Ends: A Framework for Durable Solutions. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution and University of Bern Project on Internal Displacement, May 2007.

Bruce, John W. Returnee Land Access: Lessons from Rwanda. London: Humanitarian Policy Group, Overseas Development Institute, June 2007,

Bueno, Olivia. Perspectives on Refoulement in Africa. Paper originally presented at the Canadian Council for Refugees Conference. Toronto: International Refugee Rights Initiative, June 17, 2006.

Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions. The Pinheiro Principles: United Nations Principles on Housing and Property Restitution for Refugees and Displaced Persons. Geneva: Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions, 2005.

Chambers, Robert and Gordon R. Conway. Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: Practical Concepts for the 21st Century. IDS Discussion Paper 296. Brighton: Institute of Development Studies, December 1991.

Crisp, Jeffrey. UNHCR, Refugee Livelihoods and Self-reliance: A Brief History. Geneva: paper presented at UNHCRs Executive Committee, September 2003.

De Vriese, Machtelt. Refugee Livelihoods: A Review of the Evidence. EPAU/2006/04. Geneva: The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, February 2006.

Deng, Frances. Internal Displacement in Colombia. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institute, September 7, 2000.

Dorward, Andrew. Pro-poor Livelihoods: Addressing the Market/Private Sector Gap. Paper originally presented at the Sustainable Livelihoods Seminar on Private Sector and Enterprise Development. Manchester: November 19, 2001.

Emmott, Sue. A Practitioners View of the Relief-Development Divide in Post-Taliban Afghanistan. Paper presented at the 3rd Biennial Conference of the International Development Studies Network of Aotearoa, New Zealand. Aotearoa, New Zealand: December 5-7, 2006.

Executive Committee of the High Commissioners Programme. Local Integration and Self-Reliance. EC/55/SC/CRP.15. Geneva: UNHCR, June 2, 2005.

Fagen, Patricia and Micah N. Bump. Remittances in Conflict and Crises: How Remittances Sustain Livelihoods in War, Crises, and Transitions to Peace. New York: International Peace Academy, February 2006.

Food and Agricultural Organization. Gender: Key to Sustainability and Food Security: Plan of Action: Gender and Development. Rome: FAO, 2003.

Good Humanitarian Donorship Initiative. Annual Report 2006-7. Geneva: GHD, 2007.

Goovaerts, Piers M. Gasser and A.B. Inbal. Demand Driven Approaches to Livelihoods Support in Post-war Contexts. Social Development Paper Number 89. The World Bank and International Labour Office.

Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. National Program for Landless Returnees. AFG/MoRR/1384/NP1. Kabul: The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Refugees and Repatriation, July 2005.

Groves, Leslie. 2007 Global Analysis: UNHCR Accountability Framework for Age, Gender and Diversity Mainstreaming and Targeted Actions. Geneva: UNHCR, 2007.

Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre. Colombia: Rate of New Displacement Highest in Two Decades. IDMC, October 17, 2008,

International Committee of the Red Cross. The ICRC in Iraq. ICRC.

International Organization for Migration. IOM Sudan Newsletter. Volume 24. April-May 2008.

International Organization for Migration. Refugee Protection. IOM.

Human Rights Education Associates. The Inter-American Human Rights System. HREA,

Jacobsen, Karen and Kimberly Howe. Internal Displacement to Urban Areas: the Tufts-IDMC Profiling Study: Santa Marta, Colombia: Case 3.

Jastram, Kate and Marilyn Achiron. Refugee Protection: A Guide to International Refugee Law. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union and The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.

Kaun, Alexandra. When the Displaced Return: Challenges to Reintegration in Angola. Research Paper Number 152. Washington, D.C.: United State Citizenship and Immigration Services, Office of Refugee and Asylum, January 2008.

Keely, Charles. The International Forced Migration Regime. In Developing DFIDs Policy Approach to Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons. Oxford: University of Oxford, Refugee Studies Centre, February 2005.

Koser, Khalid. The Return of Refugees and IDPs and Sustainable Peace. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, February 10, 2008.

Macrae, Joanna. Aiding Peace and War: UNHCR, Returnee Reintegration, and the Relief-Development Debate. Working Paper Number 14. London: Overseas Development Institute, December 1999.

Maley, William and Susanne Schmeidl. Finding Durable Solutions in Contested Transitions: The Case of the Refugee Population. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISAs 49th Annual Convention: Bridging Multiple Divides. San Francisco: March 26, 2008.

Milner, James. Sharing the Security Burden: Towards the Convergence of Refugee Protection and State Security. RSC Working Paper Number 4. Oxford: University of Oxford, Refugee Studies Centre, May 2000.

Nam, Andrew. Livelihood Characterisation of South Sudan: The Use of Physiographic and Agro-Climatic Layers. ODERO.

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Conclusion on Local Integration. Geneva: UNHCR.

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. An Exploration of the Livelihood Strategies of Durban Congolese Refugees. Working Paper Number 123. Geneva: UNHCR, February 2006.

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Capacity-Building. UNHCR.

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Chapter 2: Persons of Concern to UNHCR. In UNHCR and International Protection: A Protection Induction Programme. Geneva: UNHCR, June 2006.

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Framework for Durable Solutions for Refugees and Persons of Concern. Geneva: UNHCR, May 2003.

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugee. Handbook on Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee Status Under the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees. HCR/IP/4/Eng/REV.1. Geneva: UNHCR, updated January 1992.

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Handbook for the Protection of Internally Displaced Persons: Part IV: Activities and Tools for Protection. Guidance Note 4: Capacity Building. Geneva: UNHCR, December 1, 2007.

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Handbook for Repatriation and Reintegration Activities. Geneva: UNHCR, May 2004.

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Handbook for Self-reliance. Geneva: UNHCR, August 2005.

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. An Introduction to International Protection: Protecting Persons of Concern to UNHCR: Self-study Module 1. Geneva: UNHCR, August 1, 2005.

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Quick Impact Projects (QiPs): A Provisional Guide. Geneva: UNHCR, May 2004.

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugee. Policy Framework and Implementation Strategy: UNHCRs Role in Support of the Return and Reintegration of Displaced Populations. Geneva: UNHCR, February 18, 2008.

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Protecting Refugees: A Field Guide for NGOs. Geneva: UNHCR.

Organization of American States. Cartagena Declaration on Refugees: Annual Report of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. OEA/Ser.L/V/II.66/doc.10, rev. 1. University of Minnesota Human Rights Library: November 22, 1984.

Organization of American States. Key OAS Issues: The OAS at a Glance. OAS,

Organization of American States. The Protection of Refugees, Returnees, and Internally Displaced Persons in the Americas. AG/RES. 1892 (XXXII-O/02). June 4, 2002.

Organization of American States. Strategic Plan for Partnership for Integral Development 2006-2009. OAS / SEDI Department of Follow-up, Policies and Programs.

Refugees International. Prospects for Repatriation of Afghan Refugees and Displaced Persons. Refugees International, February 8, 2002.

The Sphere Handbook. Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response. Geneva: The Sphere Project, 1997.

Stoddard, Abby, Adele Harmer and Katherine Haver. Providing Aid in Insecure Environments: Trends in Policy and Operations. HPG Briefing Paper 24. London: Overseas Development Institute, September 2006.

The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. A Practical Guide to Capacity Building as a Feature of UNHCRs Humanitarian Programmes. Geneva: UNHCR,

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Chapter 4: Return and Reintegration. In The State of the Worlds Refugees: A Humanitarian Agenda. Geneva: UNHCR, 1997.

Pantuliano, Sara, Margie Buchanan-Smith, Paul Murphy and Irina Mosel. The Long Road Home: Opportunities and Obstacles to the Reintegration of IDPs and Refugees Returning to Southern Sudan and the Three Areas. Overseas Development Institute, August 2007.

Pohjolainen, Anna-Elina. The Evolution of National Human Rights Institutions: The Role of the United Nations.Copenhagen: The Danish Institute for Human Rights, 2006.

The Reach Out Refugee Protection Training Project. Module 9: Durable Solutions. In Reach Out Refugee Protection Training Kit, 2005.

The Redress Trust and The Immigration Law Practitioners Association. Non-refoulement Under Threat. Proceedings of a seminar, London: REDRESS and ILPA, May 16, 2006.

Skrabalo, Marina. Documenting the Impact of Community Peacebuilding Practices in the Post-Yugoslav Region as a Basis for Policy Framework Development. July 2003.

Smillie, Ian. Relief and Development: The Struggle for Synergy. Occasional Paper Number 33. Providence: The Thomas J. Watson Jr. Institute for International Studies, Brown University, 1998.

United Kingdom Department for International Development. Sustainable Livelihoods Guidance Sheets. London: DFID, 1999.

United Nations. In Larger Freedom: Towards Security, Development and Human Rights for All: Report of the Secretary-General of the UN for Decision by Heads of State and Government. New York: UN, September 2005.

United Nations. United Nations Return and Reintegration Policy for IDPs to Southern Sudan and the Three Areas. United Nations Sudan Information Gateway, October 2006.

United Nations Childrens Fund. Child Protection from Violence, Exploitation and Abuse. UNICEF.

United Nations Development Group. United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF). UNDG.

United Nations Development Programme. Annual Report 2008. New York: UNDP, 2008.

United Nations Development Programme. Community-Based Reintegration. UNDP Bureau of Crisis Prevention and Recovery.

United Nations Development Programme. Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR). UNDP Bureau of Crisis Prevention and Recovery.

United Nations Development Programme. Post-Conflict Economic Recovery: Enabling Local Ingenuity. UNDP Bureau of Crisis Prevention and Recovery, New York: UNDP, 2008.

United Nations International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training. Education for Livelihoods and Civil Participation in Post-Conflict Countries: Conceptualizing a Holistic Approach to TVET Planning and Programming in Sub-Saharan Africa. Discussion Paper Number 3. Bonn: UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training, 2007.

United Nations Peacebuilding Commission. Summary of Main Points and Recommendations by NGOs to the Peacebuilding Commission as discussed at the Informal Briefing by the Chairman of the Peacebuilding Commission, with Members of the Commission and Non-governmental Organizations, to Discuss Peacebuilding Priorities in Burundi and Sierra Leone. New York: PBC, October 11, 2006.

United States Agency for International Development. Community-Focused Reintegration. Washington, D.C.:  USAID.

Womens Commission for Refugee Women and Children. Build the Peace: Creating Economic Opportunities for Post-conflict Liberia. New York: Womens Commission for Refugee Women and Children, June 2007.

Womens Commission for Refugee Women and Children. From the Ground Up: Education and Livelihoods in Southern Sudan. New York: Womens Commission for Refugee Women and Children, January 2007.

The World Bank Post-Conflict Fund. Workshop on Closing the Gap on Community Reintegration Activities: Learning from Inter-agency Collaboration. Geneva: The World Bank, June 23-24, 2003.

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UN official documents

United Nations. Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees. General Assembly Resolution 429. New York: United Nations, July 28, 1951.

United Nations. Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement. E/CN.4/1998/52/Add.2. New York: United Nations, February 11, 1998.

United Nations. Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations. A/55/305-S/2000/809. New York: UN, 2000.

The news, reports, and analyses herein are selected due to there relevance to issues of peacebuilding, or their significance to policymakers and practitioners. The content prepared by HPCR International is meant to summarize main points of the current debates and does not necessarily reflect the views of HPCR International or the Program of Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research. In addition, HPCR International and contributing partners are not responsible for the content of external publications and internet sites linked to this portal.