Last Updated: December 18, 2008

Academic resources

Abu-Nimer, Mohammed, ed. Reconciliation, Justice, and Coexistence: Theory and Practice. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2001.

Ackerman, Holly. National Reconciliation in the Case of Cuba: Definition and Analysis. Paper, Ninth Annual Meeting of the Association for the Study of the Cuban Economy (ASCE), Coral Gables, Florida, August 12-14, 1999.

Ackermann, Alice. Reconciliation as a Peace-Building Process in Postwar Europe: The Franco-German Case. Peace & Change 19, no. 3, (1994): 229-250.

Amstutz, Mark. The Healing of Nations: The Promise and Limits of Political Forgiveness. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2005.

Amstutz, Mark R. Is Reconciliation Possible After Genocide? The Case of Rwanda. Journal of Church and State 48, no. 3 (July 1, 2006): 541-565.

Appleby, R. Scott. The Ambivalence of the Sacred: Religion, Violence, and Reconciliation. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2000.

Assefa, Hizkias. Reconciliation. In Peacebuilding: A Field Guide, edited by Luc Reychler and Thania Paffenholz, 336-42. London: Lynne Reiner Publishers, 2001.

Auerbach, Yehudith. The Role of Forgiveness in Reconciliation. In From Conflict Resolution to Reconciliation, edited by Yaakov Bar-Siman-Tov, 149-76. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Baird, Anthony. An Atmosphere of Reconciliation: A Theory of Resolving Ethnic Conflicts Based on the Transcaucasian Conflicts. The Online Journal of Peace and Conflict Resolution 2, no. 4 (November 1999).

Ball, Nicole. The Challenge of Rebuilding War-Torn Societies. In Turbulent Peace: The Challenge of Managing International Conflict, edited by Chester A. Crocker, Fen Osler Hampson, and Pamela Aall, 719-36. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace, 2005.

Barkan, Elazar and Alexander Karn. Group Apology as an Ethical Imperative. In Taking Wrongs Seriously: Apologies and Reconciliation, edited by Elazar Barkan and Alexander Karn, 3-30. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2006.

Berman, Kim and Daniel Selibe. Artist Proof Studio: A Journey of Reconciliation. Working paper, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts, 2003.

Berns, Jessica with Mari Fitzduff. What is Coexistence and Why a Complementary Approach? Waltham, MA: Brandeis University Coexistence Initiative, July 2007.

Boersch-Supan, Johanna. What the Communities Say: The Crossroads between Integration and Reconciliation. What can be Learned from the Sierra Leonean Experience? PhD dissertation, Oxford University, Oxford, 2008.

Bohm, David. On Dialogue. New York: Routledge, 1997.

Bole, William, Drew Christiansen, and Robert T. Hennemeyer. Forgiveness in International Politics: An Alternative Road to Peace. Washington, DC: United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, 2004.

Boraine, Alexander L. Transitional Justice: A Holistic Interpretation. Journal of International Affairs 60, no. 1 (October 1, 2006): 17-27.

Borer, Tristan A., Darby, John, and McEvoy-Levy, Sibhoan. Peacebuilding after Peace Accords: The Challenges of Violence, Truth and Youth. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2006.

Botman, H. Russel. Truth and Reconciliation: The South Africa Case. In Religion and Peacebuilding, edited by Harold Coward and Gordon S. Smith, 243-60. New York: SUNY Press, 2004.

Bouris, Erica. Complex Political Victims. Bloomfield: Kumarian Press, 2007.

Chapman, Audrey R. and Bernard Spong. Religion and Reconciliation in South Africa: Voices of Religious Leaders. Philadelphia: Templeton Foundation Press, 2004.

Chesterman, Simon, Michael Ignatieff, and Ramesh Thakur. Making States Work: From State Failure to State-Building. New York: International Peace Academy, July 2004.

Christodoulidis, Emilios and Scott Veitch, eds. Lethes Law: Justice, Law and Ethics in Reconciliation. Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2001.

Cohen, Cynthia. Creative Approaches to Reconciliation. In The Psychology of Resolving Global Conflicts: From War to Peace, edited by M. Fitzduff and C.E. Stout, Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2005.

Cole, Elizabeth A. History, Education, and Sociopolitical Reconciliation after Mass Crimes. Research paper, Re-Imagining Peace after Massacres, CERI Sciences-Po.

Cole, Elizabeth A. Introduction: Reconciliation and History Education. In Teaching the Violent Past, History Education and Reconciliation, edited by Elizabeth Cole. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2007.

Cose, Ellis. Bone to Pick: Of Forgiveness, Reconciliation, Reparation, and Revenge. New York: Atria Books, 2004.

Crocker, David. Punishment, Reconciliation and Democratic Deliberation. Buffalo Criminal Law Review 6(4) (2002): 509-549.

Crocker, David. Reckoning with Past Wrongs: A Normative Framework. Ethics and International Affairs 13 (1999).

Daly, Erin and Jeremy Sarkin. Reconciliation in Divided Societies: Finding Common Ground. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007.

de Grieff, Pablo The Role of Apologies in National Reconciliation Processes: On Making Trustworthy Institutions Trusted. In The Age of Apology, edited by Mark Gibney and Rhoda E. Howard-Hassmann. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008.

De Gruchy, John W. Reconciliation: Restoring Justice. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2002.

Delgado, Mariana. The Role of Universities in Peacebuilding Processes in Contexts of Armed Conflict: The Experience of the Universidad de Bogota Jorge Tadeo Lozano in Colombia. Proceedings of the 4th International Barcelona Conference on Higher Education, Vol. 5. The role of higher education in peace building and reconciliation processes. Barcelona: GUNI.

Dwyer, Susan. Reconciliation for Realists. Ethics and International Affairs 13 (1999).

Feldman, Lily Gardner. The Principle and Practice of Reconciliation in German Foreign Policy: Relations with France, Israel, Poland and the Czech Republic. International Affairs 75, no. 2 (1999).

Fisher, Ronald J. Social-Psychological Processes in Interactive Conflict Analysis and Reconciliation. In Reconciliation, Justice, and Coexistence: Theory and Practice, edited by Mohammed Abu-Nimer, 25-45. New York: Lexington Books, 2001.

Gibson, James L. The Contributions of Truth to Reconciliation: Lessons from South Africa. The Journal of Conflict Resolution 50, no. 3 (June 1, 2006): 409-432.

Govier, Trudy. Trust and the Problem of National Reconciliation. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 32 (2002).

Hamber, Brandon and Grainne Kelly, A Working Definition of Reconciliation. Democratic Dialogue (2004).

Hamber, Brandon and Hugo van der Merwe. What is this Thing Called Reconciliation? Reconciliation in Review 1, no. 1, (1998).

Hamber, Brandon. Does the Truth Heal? A Psychological Perspective on Political Strategies for Dealing with the Legacy of Political Violence. In Burying the Past: Making Peace and Doing Justice after Civil Conflict, edited by Nigel Biggar, 155-74. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2003.

Hancock, Landon. Reconciliation and Justice as Prerequisites for Peace-Building. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology 8, no. 3 (2002): 291-293.

Hart, Barry, ed. Peacebuilding in Traumatized Societies. Maryland: University Press of America, 2008.

Hartwell, Marcia. The Role of Forgiveness in Reconstructing Society after Conflict. Journal of Humanitarian Assistance (May 1999).

Hatay, Ann-Sofi Jakobsson. Peacebuilding and Reconciliation in Bosnia, Herzegovina, Kosovo and Macedonia 1995-2004. Uppsala, Sweden: Uppsala University Department of Peace and Conflict Research, 2005.

Hein, Laura and Mark Selden. The Lessons of War, Global Power, and Social Change. In Censoring History, edited by Laura Hein and Mark Selden. Armonk, NY: Sharpe, 2000.

Herman, Judith. Trauma and Recovery. New York: Basic Books, 1997.

Hodgson, Jennifer, William Boyce, and Michael Koros. Community Based Rehabilitation: A Strategy for Peacebuilding. Working paper, Queens University, Kingston, Canada.

Humphrey, Michael. The Politics of Atrocity and Reconciliation: From Terror to Trauma. London: Routledge, 2002.

Hutt, Jenny and Bev Hosking. Playback Theatre: A Creative Resource for Reconciliation. Virtual Resource, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts, 2004.

Huyse, Luc. Theory and Practice. In Reconciliation: Rhetoric or Relevant? edited by Grainne Kelly and Brandon Hamber. Belfast: Democratic Dialogue, 2005.

Irani, George E. and Nathan C. Funk. Rituals of Reconciliation: Arab-Islamic Perspectives. Occasional Paper #19. Notre Dame, Indiana: Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies, 2000.

Jean, Isabella and Jessica Berns. Complementary Approaches to Coexistence Work: Focus on Coexistence and Democracy-Building. Coexistence International (July 2007).

King, Régine Uwibereyeho. Trauma, Healing and Reconciliation in Rwanda. International Journal of Disability, Community & Rehabilitation 1, no. 3 (2002).

Kois, Lisa. The Art of Forgetting. Documentary, Sri Lanka, 2006.

Kriesberg, Louis. Coexistence and the Reconciliation of Communal Conflicts. In The Handbook of Interethnic Coexistence, edited by Eugene Weiner, 182-198. New York: Continuum Publishing, 1998.

Kriesberg, Louis. Comparing Reconciliation Actions within and Between Countries. In From Conflict Resolution to Reconciliation, edited by Yaakov Bar-Siman-Tov. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Kriesberg, Louis. External contributions to post-mass-crime rehabilitation. In After Mass Crimes Rebuilding States and Communities,edited by Beatrice Pouligny, Simon Chesterman, and Albrecht Schnabel, 243-270. Tokyo: United Nations University Press, 2007.

Kriesberg, Louis. Paths to Varieties of Intercommunal Reconciliation. In Conflict Resolution: Dynamics, Process and Structure, edited by Ho-won Jeong.  Ashgate: Aldershot, 1999.

Kriesberg, Louis. Reconciliation: Aspects, Growth, and Sequences International Journal of Peace Studies 12, no 1 (Spring/Summer 2007): 1-21.

Lambourne, Wendy. Post-Conflict Peacebuilding: Meeting Human Needs for Justice and Reconciliation. Peace, Conflict and Development 4 (April 2004).

Last, David. From Peacekeeping to Peacebuilding. The Online Journal of Peace and Conflict Resolution 5, no. 1 (2003).

Lederach, John Paul. Building Peace: Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided Societies. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1998.

Lederach, John Paul. Civil Society and Reconciliation In Turbulent Peace: The Challenges of Managing International Conflict, edited by Chester A. Crocker, Fen Osler Hampson, and Pamela Aall, 841-854. Washington D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press, 2001.

Lederach, John Paul. Conflict Transformation in Protracted Internal Conflicts: The Case for a Comprehensive Framework. In Conflict Transformation, edited by Kumar Rupesinghe. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 1995.

Lederach, John Paul. Journey towards Reconciliation. Waterloo, ON: Herald Press, 1999.

Lederach, John Paul. The Little Book of Conflict Transformation, Intercourse, PA: Good Books, 2005.

Lederach, John Paul. The Moral Imagination: The Art and Soul of Building Peace. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Lemarchand, Rene and Maurice Niwese. Mass Murder, the Politics of Memory and Post-Genocide Reconstruction: The Cases of Rwanda and Burundi. In After Mass Crime: Rebuilding States and Communities, edited by Beatrice Pouligny, Simon Chesterman, and Albrecht Schnabel. Tokyo: United Nations University Press, 2007.

Lerche, Charles O.  III. Truth Commissions and National Reconciliation: Some Reflections on Theory and Practice. Peace and Conflict Studies 7(1) (May 2000).

Leys, Colin and Mahmood Mamdani. Crisis and Reconstruction - African Perspectives: Two Lectures. Sweden: Nordiska Africainstitutet, 1997.

Malek, Cate. Reconciliation. Conflict Research Consortium, University of Colorado.

Mani, Rami. Rebuilding an Inclusive Political Community after War. Security Dialogue 36, no. 4 (2005).

Maynard, Kimberly A. Healing Communities in Conflict: International Assistance in Complex Emergencies. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999.

McGregor, Lorna. Reconciliation: I Know It When I See It. Contemporary Justice Review 9, no. 2 (2006): 155-174.

Newman, Edward. Recovering from Civil Conflict: Reconciliation, Peace, and Development. London: Frank Cass Publishers, 2002.

Opotow, Susan. Reconciliation in Times of Impunity: Challenges for Social Justice. Social Justice Research 14, no. 2 (June 2001): 149-170.

Osgood, Charles. Perspective in Foreign Policy. Palo Alto: Pacific Books, 1966.

Philpott, Daniel. Religion, Reconciliation, and Transitional Justice: The State of the Field. New York: Social Science Research Center, October 2007.

Philpott, Daniel. What Religion Brings to the Politics of Transitional Justice. Journal of International Affairs 61, no. 1 (2007): 93-110

Posthumus, Bram, Salomão Tirço Mungoi, Hugo van der Merwe, and Richard Smith. Struggles in Peacetime: Working with ex-combatants in Mozambique - their work, their frustrations and successes. Amsterdam: Netherlands Institute for Southern Africa, 2006.

Pugh, Michael, ed. Regeneration of War-Torn Societies. New York: St. Martins Press, 2000.

Redekop, Vern Neufeld. A Post-Genocidal Justice of Blessing as an Alternative to a Justice of Violence: The Case of Rwanda. In Peacebuilding in Traumatized Societies, edited by Barry Hart. Maryland: University Press of America, 2008.

Redekop, Vern Neufeld. Teachings of Blessing as an Element of Reconciliation: Intra and Inter-Religious Hermeneutical Challenges and Opportunities. In The Next Step in Studying Religion: A Graduates Guide, ed. Matthieu Courville. London: The Continuum International Publishing Group, 2002.

Ricigliano, Robert. Networks of Effective Action: Implementing an Integrated Approach to Peacebuilding. Security Dialogue 34, no. 4 (December 2003).

Rigby, Andrew. Dealing with the Past: Forgiveness and the Reconstruction of Memory in Divided Societies. In Ethical Theory in the Study of International Politics, edited by Mark Evans 103-122. New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2004.

Rodella, Aude-Sophie. Justice, Peace, and Reconciliation in Post-Conflict Societies: The Case of Sierra Leone. Masters thesis, the Fletcher School of Tufts University, 2003.

Rotberg, Robert I. and Dennis Thompson, eds. Truth v. Justice: The Morality of Truth Commissions. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000.

Schapp, Andrew. Political Reconciliation. New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 2005.

Simpson, Graeme. Reconstruction and Reconciliation: Emerging from Transition, Development in Practice 7, no. 4 (1997).

Sisson, Jonathan, ed. Dealing with the Past in Post-Conflict Societies: Ten Years after the Peace Accords in Guatemala and Bosnia-Herzegovina. Conference Paper for the Swisspeace Annual Conference, 2006. 

Slachmuijlder, Lena. The Rhythm of Reconciliation: A reflection on drumming as a contribution to reconciliation processes in Burundi and South Africa. Working paper, Brandeis University, 2003-04.

Staub, Ervin, Laurie Ann Pearlman, Alexandra Gubin, and Athanase Hagengimana. Healing, Reconciliation, Forgiving, and the Prevention of Violence after Genocide or Mass Killing: An Intervention and its Experimental Evaluation in Rwanda. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 24, No. 3 (2005): 297-334.

Stover, Eric and Harvey M. Weinstein, eds. My Neighbor, My Enemy: Justice and Community in the Aftermath of Mass Atrocity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Strong-Cvetich, Nikolas, and Dr. Jason Scorse. Eco-Tourism in Post-Conflict: A New Tool for Reconciliation? Working paper,Monterey Institute of International Studies, 2007.

Teaching for Reconciliation: Can Tolerance Towards Former Enemies Be Taught? Report on an International Faculty Development Seminar, Lublin, Poland, June 3-5, 2001.

Theidon, Kimberly. Intimate Enemies: Reconciling the Present in Post-War Communities in Ayacucho, Peru. In After Mass Crime: Rebuilding States and Communities, edited by Beatrice Pouligny, Simon Chesterman, and Albrecht Schnabel. Tokyo: United Nations University Press, 2007.

Theidon, Kimberly. The Micropolitics of Reconciliation in Postwar Peru. Journal of Conflict Resolution 50, no. 3, (2006): 433-457.

Unsworth, Sue and Peter Uvin. A New Look at Civil Society Support in Rwanda? Draft, Oct. 7, 2002.

Uvin, Peter. Life after Violence: A Peoples History of Burundi. London: Zed Books, 2008.

Volf, Miroslav. Free of Charge: Giving and Forgiving in a Culture Stripped of Grace. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2005.

Wink, Walter. When the Powers Fall: Reconciliation in the Healing of Nations. Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg Fortress Press, 1998.

Winslow, Tom. Reconciliation: The Road to Healing? Collective Good, Individual Harm? Track Two 6 no. 3 & 4 (1997).

Wuye, James, and Muhammad Ashafa. The Pastor and the Imam: Responding to Conflict. Kaduna, Nigeria: Ibrash Press, 1999.

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News and reports

IRIN. The Long Journey Home: an IRIN Web Special on the challenge of refugee return and reintegration. February 12, 2005.

Reuters. Sports Leagues in Kenya Facilitate Tribal Reconciliation. February 12, 2008.

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UN News Centre. UN promotes peacebuilding in Kenya after election crisis. April 28, 2008.

Weinstein, Michael. Somalia's Compromised National Reconciliation Conference. Power and Interest News Report, July 9, 2007.

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Policy analysis and practitioner documents

Abrahamsen, Therese and Hugo van der Merwe. Reconciliation through Amnesty? Amnesty Applicants' Views of the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Research report written for the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, 2005.

Assefa, Hizkias. The Meaning of Reconciliation. In People Building Peace - 35 Inspiring Stories from Around the World. European Centre for Conflict Prevention, 1999.

Baines, Erin and Boniface Ojok. Coping with Violence in Northern Uganda: Reflections on Amnesty. Human Security Bulletin 6, issue 1 (2008).

Bar-On, Dan. Reconciliation Revisited - Part II, Along with the TRT Experience. Newropeans Magazine, March 15, 2006.

Bar-On, Daniel. Reconciliation Revisited - Part III, The Concept of Reconciliation Revisited, the Testing Parameters. Newropeans Magazine, March 16, 2006.

Barsalou, Judy. Trauma and Transitional Justice in Divided Societies. United States Institute of Peace, Special Report 135, 2005.

Barsalou, Judy and Victoria Baxter. The Urge to Remember: The Role of Memorials in Social Reconstruction and Transitional Justice. United States Institute of Peace, Stabilization and Reconstruction Series No. 5, January 2007.

Biro, Peter. Mata Hari: The Voice of Reconciliation. International Rescue Committee, July 9, 2007.

Bloomfield, David, Teresa Barnes, and Luc Huyse. Reconciliation after Violent Conflict: A Handbook. Stockholm: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, 2003.

Brahm, Eric. Peacebuilding and Reconciliation Stage. Beyond Intractability, edited by Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. Conflict Research Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder. Posted: October 2003.

Brouneus, Karen. Reconciliation and Development. Study prepared for Workshop 8 - Reconciliation at the International Conference Building a Future on Peace and Justice, Nuremberg, 25-27 June 2007.

Du Toit, F. Learning to Live Together: Practices of Social Reconciliation. Cape Town, South Africa: Institute for Justice and Reconciliation, 2003.

Ferris, Elizabeth. The Role of Civil Society in Ending Displacement and Peacebuilding. Lessons Learned Working Group Paper, UN Peacebuilding Commission, March 2008.

Friedman, Jordana and Nick Killick. The Partnership Model. In People Building Peace - 35 Inspiring Stories from Around the World. European Centre for Conflict Prevention, 1999.

Ginifer, Jeremy, Mike Bourne, and Owen Greene. Considering Armed Violence in the Post-Conflict Transition: DDR and Small Arms and Light Weapons Reductions. Bradford, UK: Centre for International Cooperation and Security,September 2004.

Gleichmann, Colin, Michael Odenwald, Kees Steenken, and Adrian Wilkinson. Disarmament Demobilisation and Reintegration: A Practical Field and Classroom Guide. Germany: Druckerei Hassmüller Graphische Betriebe GmbH & Co. KG, 2004.

Goniwe, Nyameka. Case Study: Healing Cradock after Apartheid. Case Studies, Institute for Justice and Reconciliation. 

Henderson, Michael. Forgiveness: Breaking the Chain of Hate. St. Paul, MN: Grosvenor Books, 2002.

Henderson, Michael. The Forgiveness Factor. St. Paul, MN: Grosvenor Books, 1996.

Harpviken, Kristian Berg, and Kjell Erling Kjellman. Beyond Blueprints: Civil Society and Peacebuilding. Oslo: International Peace Research Institute, August 9, 2004.

Hauss, Charles (Chip). Reconciliation. Beyond Intractability, edited by Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. Conflict Research Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder. Posted: September 2003.

Hovil, Lucy and Zachary Lomo. Whose Justice? Perceptions of Ugandas Amnesty Act 2000: The Potential for Conflict Resolution and Long Term Reconciliation. Working Paper 15. Kampala, Uganda: Refugee Law Project, February 2005.

Huyse, Luc. The Process of Reconciliation. In Reconciliation after Violent Conflict, edited by David Bloomfield, Teresa Barnes and Luc Huyse, 19-39. Stockholm: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA), 2005.

Hyden, Goran. Post-war Reconciliation and Democratization: Concepts, Goals and Lessons Learnt. Working paper for Chr. Michelsen Institute seminar, Solstrand, March 27-29, 2000.

International Center for Transitional Justice. Reconciliation. February, 2006.

International IDEA. Reconciliation Lessons Learned from United Nations Peacekeeping Missions: Case Studies - Sierra Leone and Timor LEste. Stockholm: International IDEA, 2004.

Landau, Yehezkel. Healing the Holy Land: Interreligious Peacebuilding in Israel/Palestine. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, August 2003.

Malakalaka, Moloko. Uganda's National Reconciliation Path: An Integrated and Sustainable Developmental Approach. Johannesburg: Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, 2006.

Mobekk, Eirin. Transitional Justice and Security Sector Reform: Enabling Sustainable Peace. Occasional Paper no. 13. Geneva: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF), November 2006.

Moix, Bridget. Faith and Conflict. Foreign Policy in Focus (October 4, 2007).

Mongbé, René Valery and Robert del Picchia. Promoting International Reconciliation, Helping to Bring Stability to Regions of Conflict, and Assisting with Post-Conflict Reconstruction. Resolution adopted by the 110th assembly of the Inter-Parliamentary Union, Mexico City, April 15-23, 2004.

Neufeldt, Reina, Larissa Fast, Fr Robert Schreiter, Fr Brian Starken, Duncan MacLaren, Jaco Cilliers, and John Paul Lederach. Peacebuilding: A Caritas Training Manual. Vatican City: Caritas Internationalis, 2002.

Notter, James. Trust and Conflict Transformation. Occasional Paper Number 5. Arlington, VA: Institute for Multi-Track Diplomacy, April 1995.

Peuraca, Branka. Can Faith-Based NGOs Advance Faith-Based Reconciliation? The Case of Bosnia and Herzegovina.Special Report no. 103. Washington, DC: U.S. Institute for Peace, March 2003.

Rigby, Andrew. Reflections on Reconciliation. Review 29. Committee for Conflict Transformation Support (CCTS), December 2005/January 2006.

Rittener, Carol, RSM. Against the Odds: The Process of Reconciliation. Opening comments, UN NGO Conference, September 11, 2002.

Rose, Tore. Integrating Conflict Prevention and Peacebuilding into United Nations Development Assistance Frameworks. International Peacebuilding Assistance, Discussion Paper No. 2, WSP International, October 2005.

Sadovic, Merdijana, Michael Farquhar, Caroline Tosh, and Janet Anderson. The Hague Tribunal and Balkan Reconciliation. Institute for War and Peace Reporting, Global Policy Forum, 21 July 2006.

Smock, David. Faith-Based NGOs and International Peacebuilding. Special Report No. 76. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, October 22, 2001.

Stavrou, Aki and Angela Veale. Violence, Reconciliation and Identity the Reintegration of Lords Resistance Army Child Abductees in Northern Uganda.  Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies, 2003.

Summary Report of the Post Conflict Conference on Liberia. Summary report of the Post Conflict Conference on Liberia. Washington, DC: Friends of Liberia, 1999.

UN/DPKO, Mission of Support in East Timor. Justice and/or Reconciliation: the key to successful transition from post-conflict peacekeeping to peace and nation-building. July 19, 2004.

UNESCO. For a Renewed and Enhanced Commitment of UNESCO in the Middle East. Statement by the Director-General on the launch of the Task Force on Reconstruction and Reconciliation in the Middle East, March 6, 2002.

UNHCR. Policy Framework and Implementation Strategy: UNHCRs Role in Support of the Return and Reintegration of Displaced Populations. Geneva: The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, February 18, 2008.

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.  Handbook for Repatriation and Reintegration Activities. Geneva: UNHCR, 2004.

Vandeginste, Stefaan. The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda: Justice and Reconciliation. Relief and Rehabilitation Network, RRN Newsletter 11 (1998).

Villa-Vicencio, Charles. Reconciliation as a Metaphor. Institute for Justice and Reconciliation.

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UN official documents

UN General Assembly, 56th plenary meeting. Resolution [Regarding 2009 as International Year of Reconciliation]. A/RES/61/17, January, 23 2007.

UN Security Council, 5335th meeting. Resolution 1645 [Establishing the Peacebuilding Commission]. S/RES/1645, December 20, 2005. 

UN Security Council, 4903rd meeting. Reaffirmation of importance of UN role in post-conflict national reconciliation. S/PRST/2004/2, January 26, 2004.

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Agenda for Reconciliation

Alliance for Conflict Transformation

Alliance for Peacebuilding

Cambodian Reconciliation Committee

The Carter Center

The Centre for Peace-Building & Reconciliation

Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation

Conciliation Resources

Corrymeela Community

Fellowship of Reconciliation

Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung Nepal

Global Balance

The Goethe Institute

Institute for Multi-Track Diplomacy

Institute for Justice and Reconciliation

International Peacebuilding Alliance

The Justice and Reconciliation Project

Life & Peace Institute

The Peacebuilding Portal

Peace Trees Vietnam

Peace and Reconciliation

People Building Peace

The Plowshares Institute

Reconciliation Australia

Reconciliation Resource Network (RRN)

School for Peace

Search for Common Ground

SER Foundation NL

Sport for Development & Peace International Working Group

Théâtre & réconciliation

Transcend Nordic

Transforming Violence




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Key Resources on Art & Conflict Transformation


Ayindo, Baby. Arts Approaches to Peace: Playing our Way to Transcendance? In Peacebuilding in Traumatized Societies, edited by Barry Hart, 185-203. Maryland: University Press of America, 2008.

Bacon, Barbara Schaffer, Cheryl Yuen, and Pam Korza. Animating Democracy: The Artistic Imagination as a Force in Civic Dialogue. Washington, DC: Americans for the Arts, 1999.

Chayes, Antonia and Martha Minow, eds. Imagine Coexistence: Restoring Humanity after Violent Ethnic Conflict. Boston: Jossey-Bass, 2003.

Cleveland, W. Making Exact Change: How U.S. Arts-Based Programs Have Made a Significant and Sustained Impact on their Communities. Saxapahaw, NC: Art in the Public Interest,2005.

Cohen, Cynthia. Creative Approaches to Reconciliation. In The Psychology of Resolving Global Conflicts: From War to Peace, edited by Mari Fitzduff and Christopher E. Stout. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2005.

Cohen, Cynthia. Peace and Aesthetic Experience: Coexistence, Reconciliation, and the Arts. PSA News: Newsletter of the Peace Studies Association 6, no. 2 (2000).

Cohen, Cynthia. A Poetics of Reconciliation: The Aesthetic Mediation of Conflict. Dissertation, University of New Hampshire, 1997.

Cohen-Cruz, Jan. An Introduction to Community Arts and Activism. Community Arts Network Reading Room, 2002.

Epskamp, Kess. Healing Divided Societies. In People Building Peace: 35 Inspiring Stories from Around the World. Utrecht, Netherlands: European Platform for Conflict Prevention, 1999.

Faw Driver, Tom. The Magic of Ritual: Our Need for Liberating Rites That Transform Our Lives and Our Communities. Harper: San Francisco, 1991.

Goody, Jack. Against Ritual: Loosely Structured Thoughts on a Loosely Defined Topic. In Secular Ritual, edited by Sally F. Moore and Barbara G. Myerhoff. The Netherlands: Van Gorcum, 1977.

Ksenija, Bilbija, Jo Ellen Fair, Cynthia E. Milton, and Leigh Payne, eds. The Art of Truth-Telling About Authoritarian Rule. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 2005.

Lederach, John Paul. The Moral Imagination: The Art and Soul of Building Peace. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Liebmann, Marian, ed. Arts Approaches to Conflict. Bristol: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 1996.

McConachie, Bruce. Approaching the Structure of Feeling in Grassroots Theatre.  TheatreTopics 8, no. 1 (1998): 33-53.

Schirch, Lisa. Ritual and Symbol in Peacebuilding. Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press, 2005.

Senehi, Jessica. Constructive Storytelling in Intercommunal Conflicts: Building Community, Building Peace. In Reconcilable Differences. Turning Points in Ethnopolitical Conflict, edited by Sean Byrne and Cynthia Irvin. West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press, 2000.

Senehi, Jessica. Constructive Storytelling: A Peace Process. Peace and Conflict Studies 9, no. 2 (2002): 41-63.

Shank, Michael and Lisa Schirch. Strategic Arts-Based Peacebuilding. Peace and Change 33, no. 2 (2008): 217-242.

Skyllstad, Kjell. Creating a Culture of Peace: The Performing Arts in Interethnic Negotiations. Intercultural Communication 4 (November 2000).

Urbain, Olivier. The Power of the Arts in Re-humanizing Self and Other, Presentation at Re-imagining Self and Other: Creativity and Ethical Action in the Aftermath of Violence. Symposium at Brandeis University, Waltham, MA, October 13-14, 2004.

Von Tonegeren, Paul, Malin Brenk, Marte Hellema, and Juliette Verhoeven, eds. People Building Peace II: Successful Stories of Civil Society. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2005.

Zartman, I. William, ed. Traditional Cures for Modern Conflicts: African Conflict Medicine. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1999.

Zelizer, Craig. The Role of Artistic Processes in Peacebuilding in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Peace and Conflict Studies 10, no. 2 (2004): 62-75.

Zelizer, Craig. Integrating Community Arts and Conflict Resolution: Lessons and Challenges from the Field. Community Arts Network,2007.


In Place of War (Researching Performance and War), The University of Manchester

Théâtre et Réconciliation

Recasting Reconciliation through Culture and the Arts

Intermusic Center

The Community Arts Network (CAN)

The Power of Culture

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